Punjab is Pakistan’s second largest province by area after Balochistan and its most inhabited province. It’s deckled by the Islamic Republic of Pakistan provinces of Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the territorial dominion of Islamabad, and Azad Kashmir. It conjointly shares borders with the Indian states of Punjab, Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir. The capital of Punjab is the city Lahore, a cultural, historical, economic and cosmopolitan centre of Islamic Republic of Pakistan where the country’s cinema industry and most of its apparel industry are based.
Punjab is Pakistan’s most industrial province with the economic sector. Punjab is known in Pakistan for its relative prosperity and has all-time low rate of poverty amongst all Pakistani provinces. A clear divide is present between the northern and southern parts of the province; with poverty rates in prosperous northern Punjab amongst all-time low in Pakistan, whereas some in south Punjab are amongst the foremost impoverished. Its human development index rankings are high relative to the remainder of Pakistan.
Punjab is known in Pakistan for its comparatively liberal social attitudes. The province has been powerfully influenced by sufism with various Sufi shrines unfold across geographic region which magnetize uncountable devotees annually.
The founding father of the Sikh religion, Guru Nanak, was born within the geographic region city of Nankana sahib close to Lahore. Punjab is additionally the location of the Katasraj Temple that options conspicuously in Hindu mythology. Many UNESCO World Heritage Sites are situated in Punjab, as well as the Shalimar Gardens, the Lahore Fort, the archeologic excavations at Taxila, and also the Rohtas Fort.
Punjab’s landscape consists principally consists of fertile deposit plains of the Indus River and its four major tributaries in Pakistan, the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, and Sutlej rivers that traverse Punjab north to south – the fifth of the “five waters” of Punjab, the Beas river, lies solely within the Indian state of Punjab. The landscape is amongst the foremost heavily irrigated on earth and canals is found throughout the province. Punjab conjointly includes many mountainous regions, as well as the Sulaiman Mountains within the southwest a part of the province, the Margalla Hills within the north close to national capital, and also the Salt range that divides the foremost northerly portion of Punjab, the Pothohar plateau, from the remainder of the province. Distributed deserts is found in southern Punjab close to the border with Rajasthan and close to the Sulaiman vary. Punjab conjointly contains a part of the Thal and Cholistan deserts.
Most areas in Punjab experience extreme weather with foggy winters, typically in the course of rain. By period the temperature begins to rise; spring weather continues till mid-April, once the summer heat sets in.
Punjab’s region temperature ranges from -2° to forty five °C, however will reach fifty °C (122 °F) in summer and might set down to -10 °C in winter.
Languages spoken in Punjab are principally Punjabi followed by Saraiki, Urdu and others
PLACES OF INTEREST
The Shalimar Gardens, is a Mughal garden complex located in Lahore. The historic Shalimar Garden is one top tourist attraction in the city which has historic relevance. It is also famously known as the ‘Shalamar Gardens’. The gardens are part of the Mughal era which was completed in a record time of 1 year in 1642. The credit of the place goes to the then Emperor Shah Jahan who was known for his love for nature and construction. This extreme collage of nature and constructional artwork was accomplished under the project management of Khalilullah Khan who was a renowned noble of the Emperor’s court. Shalimar name meaning is still an unresolved mystery as the historians are yet to confirm that whether it came from Arabic or the Persian origin. The place is located close to Baghbanpura on the GT road which is in the northeast direction at a distance of 5KM from the city center of Lahore.
WAZIR KHAN MOSQUE
WAZIR KHAN MOSQUE
The Wazir Khan Mosque is 17th century mosque located in the city of Lahore, capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab. The Wazir Khan mosque is one amazing piece of artwork which is appreciated for its incredibly awesome faience tile work.
Considered to be the most ornately decorated Mughal-era mosque, Wazir Khan Mosque is renowned for its intricate faience tile work known as kashi-kari, as well as its interior surfaces that are almost entirely embellished with elaborate Mughal-era frescoes.
TOMB OF JAHANGIR
TOMB OF JAHANGIR
The Tomb of Jahangir is a 17th century mausoleum built for the Mughal Emperor Jahangir. The mausoleum dates from 1637, and is located in Shahdara Bagh in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, along the banks of the Ravi River. The site is famous for its interiors that are extensively embellished with frescoes and marble, and its exterior that is richly decorated with pietra dura. The tomb, along with the adjacent Akbari Sarai and the Tomb of Asif Khan, are part of an ensemble currently on the tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage status.
Rohtas Fort is a 16th-century fortress located near the city of Jhelum in the Pakistani province of Punjab. The fortress was built during the reign of the Pashtun king Sher Shah Suri between 1541 and 1548 in order to help subdue the rebellious tribes of the Potohar region of northern Punjab that were loyal to the Mughal crown. The fort is one of the largest and most formidable in the subcontinent. Rohtas Fort was never stormed by force, and has survived remarkably intact.
The places inside the fort, that would hold particular interest for all those who are visiting Qila Rohtas, are Haveli Man Singh, Phansi Ghat, The museum near Sohail Gate, Rani Mahal, Royal Mosque, Talaqi, Shishi and Langar Khana gatesVisitor information can be gained from the Sohaili Gate. There is the Suri Park nearby which you can also visit to have some rest or a picnic. In the vicinity of the Rohtas Fort, there are a number of restaurants that you may find interesting as Al-Kausar Hotel is near Dina towards Islamabad, Al-Bilal Hotel is near Dina towards Lahore, Iqbal Hotel near Dina towards Islamabad.The fort is known for its large defensive walls, and several monumental gateways. Rohtas Fort was inscribed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1997 for being an “exceptional example of the Muslim military architecture of central and South Asia.”
LAHORE FORT (SHAHI QILA)
LAHORE FORT (SHAHI QILA)
Lahore Fort also known as Shahi Qila is located in north-western corner of the historical city of Lahore. Though irregular in scheme the fort measures about 427 meters east-west and 335 meters north-south excluding the fortification wall added later during the Sikh rule of Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1799 – 1839 A.D).
The chequered history of the fort is a living witness of the zenith and nadir of the Mughals, the Sikhs and the colonial rulers. The art of the fort building is reflects a series of monuments from Emperor Akbar (ruled: 1556 – 1605) to the Aurangzeb (ruled: 1658 – 1707 ).The court of Emperor Akbar occupies the south-east area of the fort but most of the building have been extinct and the Masti / Akbari is still facing the Maryam Zamani Mosque. The northern half of the fort with its architectural beauty is divided into six quadrangles; from Akbari Gate to Shish Mahal.Lahore Fort and Shalamar Garden are enlisted as World Heritage Sites in 1981 by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). Presently the administrative control of Lahore fort and Shalamar Garden lies with Punjab Government, under Archaeology and Tourism Department of Punjab. A reasonable amount was allocated by Punjab Government in the year 2005-6, for the restoration and conservation of these two monuments.
Badshahi Mosque is the second largest mosque of Pakistan, located in provincial capital Lahore of Punjab. It was built in 1673 A.D. by the sixth Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir. The mosque remained the largest mosque of the world from 1673 to 1986, when it was overtaken in capacity and size upon the completion of Shah Faisal Mosque in Islamabad. It has a total area of 29,867.2 square meters (321, 488 square feet) and can accommodate upto 100,000 worshipers. Now it is 8th largest mosque in the world in terms of its capacity for accommodating worshipers and 10th largest in terms of total area. Badshahi Mosque with its beautiful Mughal architectural style and historical background is a major landmark and tourist attraction not only in Lahore but in whole Punjab.
The literal meaning of Minar-e-Pakistan is the ‘Tower of Pakistan’. It is situated right at the heart of Lahore city and it took about 8 years to complete in the year 1968. The history of this place is that the famous Lahore resolution in the year 1940 was passed at this location by the founder of Pakistan, Quaid-e-Azam. It has huge gardens all around it and has become one of the finest historic tourist spots of Pakistan.
Taxila is a great archeological site which is very much approachable and nearby the capital city of Pakistan, Islamabad. The history of this city takes us back to the Gandhara period and now it holds the ruins of that civilization. It used to be a very critical place in the history for the Hindus and the Buddhists. Further, it still is a great place for the visitors and also sacred for the people who follows Hinduism or Buddhism traditions.
KHEWRA SALT MINES
KHEWRA SALT MINES
Khewra city famous for having world’s second largest salt mines (Khewra Salt Mines) is located in District Jhelum of province Punjab, Pakistan. The city is situated about 200 kilometres (124 miles) from Islamabad and 245 kilometres (152 miles) from the city of Lahore. The mountains containing Khewra Salt Mines are part of mineral-rich mountain range called Salt Range. Total length of Salt Range is 300 kilometres (186 miles), extending from Beganwala near River Jhelum to Kalabagh near River Sindh. Width of Salt Range varies between 8 kilometres to 30 kilometres.
Khewra Salt Mine is a very popular tourist attraction with nearly 250,000 visitors each year. There are several artistic carvings of salt stones placed in different areas of Khewra Salt Mines for amusement of tourists. There is an electric train available to take visitors inside the mine. It is told that engine of this train belongs to 1930. Male and female guides are available to guide tourists about the Khewra Salt Mines.
There is cafeteria for visitors that meet immediate refreshment needs. There are also two souvenir shops offering decoration pieces and lamps made up of salt stones of Khewra Salt Mines. Inside the mine is a tunnel named crystal valley by tourists. It is a tunnel with shining salt crystal in the roof and walls illuminated by colourful lights. There are some rooms inside the Khewra Salt Mines that were mined during the Mughal times.
KATAS RAJ TEMPLE
KATAS RAJ TEMPLE
The Katas Raj Temples, also known as Qila Katas, are several Hindu temples connected to one another by walkways. The temples form a complex surrounding a pond named Katas which is regarded as sacred by Hindus. The complex is located in the Potohar Plateau region of Pakistan’s Punjab province. The temples are located near the town of Kallar Kahar, and are near the M2 Motorway.
The temples’ pond is said in the Puranas to have been created from the teardrops of Shiva, after he wandered the Earth inconsolable after the death of his wife Sati. The temples play a role in the Hindu epic poem, the Mahabharata, where the temples are traditionally believed to have been the site where the Pandava brothers spent a significant portion of their exile. It is also traditionally believed by Hindus to be the site where the brothers engaged in a riddle contest with the Yakshas, as described in the Yaksha Prashna. Another tradition states that the Hindu deity Krishna laid the foundation of the temple, and established a hand-made shivling in it.
Kallar Kahar is a town and subdivision (Tehsil) of Chakwal District in Punjab, Pakistan. It is the capital of Kallar Kahar Tehsil. This beautiful place is famous for natural garden of loquat trees, Salt Water Lake with beautiful species of peacocks. People traveling from Lahore to Islamabad, prefer to stay here for recreation at the bank of salty water Lake.
Emperor Babar described Kallar Kahar in his memoirs, the Takht-e-Babri, as a “charming place with good air”. It also hosts a training facility of Special Service Wing of Pakistan Air Force.
A number of farm houses are being built in this subdivision. It may become a central location for residence, business and markets in future.
Derawar Fort is a large square fortress in Ahmadpur East Tehsil, Punjab, Pakistan, located 100 kilometers (62 miles) from Bahawalpur, Pakistan., the forty bastions of Derawar are visible for many miles in the Cholistan Desert. The walls have a perimeter of 1500 metres and stand up to thirty metres high.
Derawar fort was built by Rai Jajja Bhatti, a Rajput ruler of the Bhatti clan. The fort was initially known as Dera Rawal, and later referred to as Dera Rawar, which with the passage of time came to be pronounced Derawar, its present name.
This historically-significant fort presents an enormous and impressive structure in the heart of the Cholistan desert, but it is rapidly deteriorating and in need of immediate preventative measures for preservation.
Derawar Fort is an important place for tourist, it’s a beautiful desert tourist place for safari. Recently start the off-road Cholistan Desert Jeep Rally or also known as “TDCP Cholistan Jeep Rally” The rally initiates near the Derawar Fort in Ahmadpur East Tehsil.
Noor Mahal (Noor Palace) is a palace located in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Built in 1875 AD, the palace is nearly one hundred and fifty years old, and, is the most recent monument in Punjab to be notified under the Antiquities Act. The state of Bahawalpur was merged in Pakistan in 1956 AD and control of the palace was given to Dep. of Auqaf under the Antiquities Act. It was locked under a judicial order but not before most of its rich holdings were smuggled out. Its furniture, carpets, paintings and crockery were sold almost all over the country.
Currently department of Archeology is responsible for the look after of the palace and they have opened it for general public, students, and to delegations and visitors from other countries.
Harappa is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about 24 km west of Sahiwal. The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River which now runs 8 km in north. The current village of Harappa is 6 km from the ancient site. Although modern Harappa has a legacy railway station from the period of the British Raj, it is today just a small crossroads town of population 15,000.
The site of the ancient city contains the ruins of a Bronze Age fortified city, which was part of the Cemetery H culture and the Indus Valley Civilization, centered in Sindh and the Punjab. The city is believed to have had as many as 23,500 residents and occupied about 150 hectares with clay sculptured houses at its greatest extent during the Mature Harappan phase (2600–1900 BC), which is considered large for its time. Per archaeological convention of naming a previously unknown civilization by its first excavated site, the Indus Valley Civilization is also called the Harappan Civilization.
The ancient city of Harappa was heavily damaged under British rule, when bricks from the ruins were used as track ballast in the construction of the Lahore-Multan Railway. In 2005, a controversial amusement park scheme at the site was abandoned when builders unearthed many archaeological artifacts during the early stages of building work. A plea from the Pakistani archaeologist Ahmad Hasan Dani to the Ministry of Culture resulted in a restoration of the site.
PUNJAB MAJOR CITIES / TOWNS
Lahore is the capital town of the Pakistani province of geographic area. it’s the second-most inhabited town in Pakistan after Karachi, and also the thirty second most inhabited town within the world. the town is found within the north-eastern finish of Pakistan’s Punjab province, close to the border with the Indian state of Punjab.
Faisalabad is the third-most-populous town in Pakistan, and therefore the second-largest within the eastern province of Punjab. Traditionally one of the first planned cities among British India, it is long since developed into a cosmopolitan metropolis. Faisalabad was restructured into territory status; A devolution publicized by the 2001 government ordinance (LGO).
Rawalpindi, ordinarily referred to as Pindi, may be a town in Punjab, Pakistan. It is the fourth-largest town in West Pakistan by population, whereas the larger Islamabad Rawalpindi metropolitan area is the country’s third-largest area. The economy of Rawalpindi is interlinked with Islamabad, and therefore the 2 are together referred to as the “twin cities”. The town is the administrative seat of the Rawalpindi District.
Multan is a Pakistani city located in Punjab province. Located on the banks of the Chenab River, Multan is Pakistan’s 5th most populous city, and is the premier cultural and economic centre of southern Punjab.
Multan’s history stretches deep into antiquity. The ancient city was site of the renowned Multan Sun Temple, and was besieged by Alexander the Great during the Mallian Campaign.
Gujranwala is an industrial city in Gujranwala District in the province of Punjab in Pakistan. Gujranwala is 226 metres above sea level and is the seventh-most-populous of the Pakistani metropolitan areas.
About 80 kilometres south is the provincial capital, Lahore. Sialkot and Gujrat lie to its north.
Sargodha is the eleventh largest town in Pakistan. it is additionally an administrative centre of Sargodha Division situated within the Punjab province and one in all the quickest growing cities in Pakistan.
Sargodha in the main contains flat, fertile plains, though here are many little hills on the Sargodha-Faisalabad Road.
Bahawalpur, is a town set in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Bahawalpur is the twelfth largest town in Pakistan. The town conjointly lies close to the traditional Derawar Fort within the Cholistan Desert close to the border with Republic of India, and is the entree to Pakistan’s Lal Suhanra national park.
Sialkot is a town in Punjab, Pakistan. Sialkot is Pakistan’s twelfth most thickly settled town, and is a component of north-east Punjab — one among Pakistan’s principally extremely industrialised regions.
Sialkot has been noted by the economic expert for its entrepreneurial spirit, and productive business climate.
Sheikhupura is an industrial town of “The Rice Valley” of subcontinent and capital of Sheikhupura District within the province of Punjab concerning forty metric linear unit northwest of Lahore in West Pakistan. it is the sixteenth largest town of West Pakistan.
Jhang is the capital town of Jhang District, within the province of Punjab, Pakistan. it is settled on the east bank of the Chenab river. under British raj, the cities of Jhang and Mighiana, lying 2 miles (3.2 km) apart, became a joint municipality, then called Jhang-Maghiana.
Gujrat, is a town in Punjab Province of Pakistan. It is the capital of Gujrat District and the eighteenth largest town of Pakistan. Gujrat Tehsil subdivision within the Punjab Province.
Gujrat’s oldest Masjid dates from the Mughal era, and resembles Lahore’s Badshahi Masjid.
Dera Ghazi Khan, abbreviated as D. G. Khan, is a city in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Its founder is Ghazi Khan. It is the headquarters of the Dera Ghazi Khan District and was formerly the centre of the Dera Ghazi Khan Division while that level of government existed.
After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while many Muslims refugees from India settled down in the Dera Ghazi Khan District.