REDUCTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN OUR ENVIRONMENT
S.K.ANSARI & SEEMA ANSARI,
Sep 3 - 9, 2012
Solving climate change is a huge international challenge. Only a concerted global effort, involving the governments of all nations, will be enough to avert dangerous consequences. But that said, the individual actions of everyday people are still crucial. Large and complex issues, like climate change, are usually best tackled by breaking down the problem into manageable bits.
Global demand for oil is rising and consumers continue to want performance and fuel economy while being increasingly concerned about their role in contributing to greenhouse gas emissions. Governments are concerned about emissions, but are also interested in energy security and supporting local agriculture, all of which are contributing to a drive for increasing market penetration of biofuels. Shareholders, although attracted to investing in the industry, are concerned about cost inflation and the sustainability of returns over the medium-to-long term.
For carbon emissions, this means reducing the CO2 contribution of each and every one of the six and a half billion people on the planet. But what can you, as an individual person or family, do that will most make a difference to the big picture? Here are my top ten action items, which are both simple to achieve and have a real effect. They are ranked by how much impact they make to 'kicking the CO2 habit'.
1. MAKE CLIMATE-CONSCIOUS POLITICAL DECISIONS. Some commentators said that the 2007 Australian Federal election was the first to be strongly influenced by the stance made by competing political parties on climate change. Regardless of how true this may be, it is obvious that the strong and urgent action needed to combat climate change will require a healthy dose of political will, and the courage to make tough choices. This willpower comes from voters, who consistently demand real action and can see through 'green washing' (pretend 'solutions' and half-measures that do not do the job). Climate change should be a totally non-partisan issue since it affects all people and all countries. If climate change is not perceived by both sides of politics as a 'core issue', it will inevitably be marginalized by apparently more immediate concerns. So assess policies clearly, and make your vote count towards real climate solutions - each and every election. This is the only way a global solution can be put in place, in time.
2. EAT LESS RED MEAT. Traditional red meat comes from ruminant livestock such as cattle and sheep. These animals produce large amounts of methane, which is a greenhouse gas that packs 72 times the punch of CO2 over a 20 year period. Other types of meat, such as chicken, pork or kangaroo, produce far less emissions. At average levels of consumption, a family's emissions from beef would easily outweigh the construction and running costs of a large 4WD vehicle, in less than 5 years. There is no need to cut out red meat entirely, but fewer steaks and snags mean far less CO2.
3. PURCHASE 'GREEN ELECTRICITY. The future of energy clearly likes in renewable sources such as solar, wind and wave power and 'hot rocks'. Even without climate change, there are limits to available oil, natural gas and coal. 'Green power' is electricity that comes from these technologies, but is delivered to you in the same way as 'dirty power' from fossil-fuel burning. That is, down your power lines. You can buy enough to replace your entire energy usage, or some fraction (I recommend going for 100%; the cost is a few more cents per kilowatt hour of electricity). Most energy suppliers now offer this service and will purchase energy from green sources that is equivalent to what you use. As more people take up this scheme, it will drive ever greater investment in these technologies, reduce cost of delivery, and so further hasten the pace of update. It's a feedback, and you can be the catalyst of change.
4. MAKE YOUR HOME AND HOUSEHOLD ENERGY EFFICIENT. We all unthinkingly leave lights on when we are not in the room, or switch off the TV by the remote instead of at the wall, fire up the heater on when we could put on an extra layer of clothing, or turn on the air conditioner when we could open the window and turn on a fan. It's force of habit - a bad habit we can break, with just a little thought. Behavior change lies at the heart of most individual actions on reducing our individual carbon footprint. By being sensible about your use household energy use, and making sure your house is well insulated, you can make a huge dent in your CO2 emissions. Oh, and it will save you plenty money that you no longer spend on wasted energy, year in, year out.
5. BUY ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENT APPLIANCES. Aside from behavioral change, we can invest in more sensible technologies that help us in our day to day lives. When buying new electronic appliances, air conditioners or washing machines, look at their energy and water usage. The more energy efficient they are, the more they'll save you in the long run, and the lower their CO2 impact will be. In most cases the 'payback period' - the difference between the initial cost of a high versus low efficiency appliance and the long-term savings in lower electricity and water bills, is only a matter of a few months to a few years. After that, you are laughing all the way to the bank, and doing something meaningful to combat climate change at the same time.
6. WALK, CYCLE OR TAKE PUBLIC TRANSPORT. Cars are not only a slow way to get to work when you're faced with a city gridlock - they are also a huge user of oil (which is running out globally) and cost the tax payer heft amounts in road building and maintenance. Getting people from A to B using trains, buses, bikes and on foot is much more greenhouse friendly, and often considerably cheaper. The main problem right now with public transport is that because not enough people use it, there is not enough investment by government to improve the quality of service and capacity to support large volumes of commuters. It might seem like a Catch-22, but some cities have solved the dilemma and now move most of their people about on public transport. So start patronizing your public transport network, and push governments at all levels for some decent bicycle and walking trails instead of building more and more roads for cars and worrying incessantly about fuel costs. The transition to a new transport system has to start with each and every one of us.
7. RECYCLE, RE-USE AND AVOID USELESS PURCHASES. We throw too much away and still re-cycle too little of what we must discard. Large amounts of energy and water go into producing endless amounts of 'stuff', much of which we don't really need or end up using. So be sure to use your local recycling service, for plastics, metals and paper. Try to get appliances and tools fixed rather than replaced - the carbon footprint of fixing things is far lower than making them from scratch. Avoid the temptation to buy useless trinkets and knick-knacks, just because it feels good to accumulate things. There are limits to everything, including, most importantly, the ability of the planet to supply people with an ever burgeoning supply of raw materials. Think sustainability.
8. TELECOMMUTE AND TELECONFERENCE. Do you really need to fight your way through traffic each and every day, just to sit at your office desk and work on your computer? Do you need to fly to a business meeting in another capital city in order to talk to your colleagues? Or can you think inventively and make best use of the benefits of the Internet to do some of this remotely? Telecommuting can be an effective way of doing 'paperwork' in your home office and more and more employers are seeing the benefits of this and embracing the concept. Teleconferences mean less wasted aeroplane trips, which create a huge CO2 burden. It can't always be done, but even a few less trips, here and there, add up to make a big difference. As with the other 10 points, it is about making smart and informed choices when you have options.
9. BUY LOCAL PRODUCE. Food miles are now firmly part of the new carbon lingo. This is a way of expressing how far an item of food has travelled before it reaches your dinner table, and therefore how much CO2 has been emitted during freighting. A better concept is probably 'embodied energy', which takes account of all the carbon, water and energy that goes into producing any food or manufactured item. Either way, a good rule of thumb is that if you buy something that has been produced locally, it will usually have a lower CO2 tag attached to it. Your local fresh food market is a good place to start for your food shopping. Buying local-made manufactured and food products is another carbon-friendly option. Both will make a difference to your climate change impact, and help the local economy. Another win-win choice.
10. OFFSET WHAT YOU CAN'T SAVE. Avoiding the release of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, in the ways described above, is by far the best and most direct way or reducing our climate change impact. Yet some emissions are unavoidable. For those, offsetting is a worthwhile option. This is done by purchasing 'carbon credits' from accredited companies which offer this service, who will then invest those dollars in (for instance) renewable energy projects or planting trees. Carbon offsets should definitely not be seen as the solution, or as a relatively pain-free way to expel your carbon guilt. There is nowhere near enough offsetting potential in the world for this to be an option for most of the world's population. But in conjunction with other methods of kicking the CO2 habit, offsets can help make a difference and allow you to pay a small penance.
All the above ten points shows tthat it is our responsibilities to follows these footsteps to illuminate the emission of CO2 from our environment because we are living in these environment and we have to follow that which can reduce CO2 gases. We cannot blame the government whether they are providing any facilities or not. We are as Pakistani must take of these factor to make our country as one of the best countries. For these 95% are blame to the citizen how we maintains thing because these facilities are providing for us not just a few anger people destroys it to un-facilitate the whole citizen. As we know that CO2 is a hazardous gas for human being which also shortened our life span.
There are other factors which can reduce the CO2 in our environment which I will discuss in this article are:
Geologic Sequestration (GS) is the process of injecting carbon dioxide (CO2), captured from an industrial (e.g., steel and cement production) or energy-related source (e.g., a power plant or natural gas processing facility), into deep subsurface rock formations for long-term storage. This is part of a process frequently referred to as "carbon capture and storage" or CCS.
CLIMATE CHANGE IS HAPPENING
Our Earth is warming. Earth's average temperature has risen by 1.4∞F over the past century, and is projected to rise another 2 to 11.5∞F over the next hundred years. Small changes in the average temperature of the planet can translate to large and potentially dangerous shifts in climate and weather.
The evidence is clear. Rising global temperatures have been accompanied by changes in weather and climate. Many places have seen changes in rainfall, resulting in more floods, droughts, or intense rain, as well as more frequent and severe heat waves. The planet's oceans and glaciers have also experienced some big changes - oceans are warming and becoming more acidic, ice caps are melting, and sea levels are rising. As these and other changes become more pronounced in the coming decades, they will likely present challenges to our society and our environment.
HUMANS ARE LARGELY RESPONSIBLE FOR RECENT CLIMATE CHANGE
Over the past century, human activities have released large amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The majority of greenhouse gases come from burning fossil fuels to produce energy, although deforestation, industrial processes, and some agricultural practices also emit gases into the atmosphere.
Greenhouse gases act like a blanket around Earth, trapping energy in the atmosphere and causing it to warm. This phenomenon is called the greenhouse effect and is natural and necessary to support life on Earth. However, the buildup of greenhouse gases can change Earth's climate and result in dangerous effects to human health and welfare and to ecosystems.
The choices we make today will affect the amount of greenhouse gases we put in the atmosphere in the near future and for years to come.
CLIMATE CHANGE AFFECTS EVERYONE
Our lives are connected to the climate. Human societies have adapted to the relatively stable climate we have enjoyed since the last ice age which ended several thousand years ago. A warming climate will bring changes that can affect our water supplies, agriculture, power and transportation systems, the natural environment, and even our own health and safety.
Some changes to the climate are unavoidable. Carbon dioxide can stay in the atmosphere for nearly a century, so Earth will continue to warm in the coming decades. The warmer it gets, the greater the risk for more severe changes to the climate and Earth's system. Although it's difficult to predict the exact impacts of climate change, what's clear is that the climate we are accustomed to is no longer a reliable guide for what to expect in the future.
We can reduce the risks we will face from climate change. By making choices that reduce greenhouse gas pollution, and preparing for the changes that are already underway, we can reduce risks from climate change. Our decisions today will shape the world our children and grandchildren will live in.
WE CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE
We and You can take action. You can take steps at home, on the road, and in your office to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the risks associated with climate change. Many of these steps can save you money; some, such as walking or biking to work can even improve your health! You can also get involved on a local or state level to support energy efficiency, clean energy programs, or other climate programs.
Calculate your carbon footprint and find ways to reduce your emissions through simple everyday actions.
EMISSION FROM REFINERIES & INDUSTRIES
To meet increased energy requirements and tough new environmental standards, refineries must combine their available expertise with continued investment in technology. This need for effective solutions to today's challenges and thirst for new technologies has led to innovation being a key business driver and an important success factor. Underpinning this shift is the drive to create more efficient and reliable processes. Refineries have come to realize that in order to meet society's needs through successful projects that will increase the volume of oil products and meet more stringent specifications and requirements, they need to be innovative in all their activities - from master planning to project execution and maintenance.
Petroleum refineries are faced with a number of purification needs, driven by increasingly stringent requirements as well as improving product quality. One traditional technology, activated carbon, remains a cost- effective method for refineries to comply with federal, state and local regulations, and handle product purification needs.
Activated carbon is successfully used in many "clean up" applications in a typical refinery. Recent cost increases for virgin activated carbons, however, have created a renewed interest for "green" solutions for many carbon applications, such as substituting virgin activated carbons with reactive carbons.
Reactivated carbon is spent carbon that is recycled by being regenerated at very high temperatures. In refineries, reactivated carbons can be used for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) abatement in vapor phase applications, waste water treatment and ground water remediation.
The refinery is essentially a carbon / hydrogen manipulator, tailoring and reshaping molecules and boiling ranges to meet the performance needs of particular fuels. All emissions from the refinery itself originate from the feedstocks used. These feedstocks are the main crude oil(s) to be processed, plus other imported feedstocks such as condensates or VGOs, and supplementary natural gas for fuel or hydrogen plants. Carbon is found in the products produced (gasoline, diesel etc), with the balance emitted into the environment. Whilst most carbon emissions from the refinery will be in the form of CO2, there are other emissions, such as VOCs, coke on catalysts (which could be landfilled) and other minor emissions. Shadow emissions from energy import (CO2 emissions derived from production of energy offsite), whilst not emitted from the refinery itself, are still important when considering the impact of the refinery operations.
CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an approach to mitigating global warming based on capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from large point sources such as fossil fuel power plants and permanently storing it away from the atmosphere. It can also be used to describe geo-engineering techniques such as Fake Plastic Trees. Although CO2 has been injected into geological formations for various purposes, the long term storage of CO2 is a relatively untried concept. The first integrated pilot-scale CCS power plant was to begin operating in September 2008 in the eastern German power plant Schwarze Pumpe in the hope of answering questions about technological feasibility and economic efficiency.
CCS applied to a modern conventional power plant could reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by approximately 80-90% compared to a plant without CCS. The IPCC estimates that the economic potential of CCS could be between 10% and 55% of the total carbon mitigation effort until year 2100.
Shell and other oil processing companies are spearheading developments in carbon capture and storage (CCS), one of the most promising technologies for reducing atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide. CCS is "the only technology available to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from large-scale fossil fuel usage". The IEA (International Energy Association) report states that CCS has the potential to deliver 20% of the greenhouse gas reductions needed to halve global emissions by 2050, but stressed that the window of opportunity was closing and substantial investment is required now to develop the technology further.
The idea is to capture carbon dioxide from power plants, refineries, industrial processes and wellheads, and store it permanently underground in deep saline aquifers, depleted oil or gas reservoirs, or unmineable coal beds. The technology to achieve this on an extensive scale is far from simple, and demonstration projects involving industry, governments and academia are required to achieve commercial models for future use.
COST OF CCS
Although the processes involved in CCS have been demonstrated in other industrial applications, no commercial scale projects which integrate these processes exist, the costs therefore remain highly uncertain. The increased energy requirements of capturing and compressing of CO2 significantly raises the operating costs of CCS-equipped power plants. In addition there are added investments or capital costs. The process would increase the fuel requirement of a plant with CCS by about 25% for a coal-fired plant and about 15% for a gas-fired plant. The cost of this extra fuel, as well as storage and other system costs are estimated to increase the costs of energy from a power plant with CCS by 30-60%, depending on the specific circumstances. Pre-commercial CCS demonstration projects are likely to be more expensive than mature CCS technology, the total additional costs of an early large scale CCS demonstration project are estimated to be Ä0.5-1.1bn per project over the project lifetime
EFFLUENT GASES EMISSION IN PAKISTAN
The level of air pollution in Pakistan's two largest cities, Karachi and Lahore, is estimated to be 20 times higher than World Health Organization standards, and continuing to rise. Islamabad, the capital, is perpetually smothered by a thick cloud of smog that hides views of the Margalla Hills that tower over the city's tree-lined streets.
As industry has expanded, factories have emitted more and more toxic effluents into the air. Also, as in other developing countries, the number of vehicles in Pakistan has swelled in recent years. Although the number of motor vehicles (1 per 125 people) in Pakistan is still well below that of the U.S. (1 per 1.3 people), the 1992 National Conservation Strategy Report claims that the average Pakistani vehicle emits 25 times as much carbon dioxide as the average U.S. vehicle, as well as 20 times as many hydrocarbons and more than 3.5 times as many nitrous oxides in grams per kilometer.
With few controls on vehicular emissions and little enforcement, reports show that motor vehicle exhaust accounts for 90% of the pollutants in Pakistan's air. The government has begun to take notice of the degrading air quality in the capital, which adversely affects the health of some 16 million people.
Many Pakistani environmentalists say that poor fuel quality is also to blame for the country's serious air pollution problems. Fuel consumption rose by 188% in Pakistan from 1980 to 2009. An estimated 550 metric tons per year of lead emissions are generated by vehicles in Pakistan burning poor-quality fuel, with the resulting air pollution adding about $500 million per year in related health care costs.
Various grades of gasoline sold contain 0.35 gm/liter of lead--in comparison, leaded gas in other countries usually contains no more than 0.15 gm/liter. The problem of air pollution could largely be solved if the government were to tighten its lax fuel quality standards.
However, the government's 1995 Clean Fuel Initiative was largely ineffective, and now authorities are looking at the possibility of using alternative fuels for vehicles. According to the latest statistics, more than 275 CNG stations are in operation and over 275,000 cars have been converted to CNG, making Pakistan third largest CNG consumer in the world after Argentina and Italy. Use of CNG in vehicles is being encouraged to reduce pressure on petroleum imports, to reduce carbon emissions and improve the environment.
FUEL TYPE UNIT CO2 EMITTED PER UNIT Petrol 1 gallon (UK) 10.4 kg Petrol 1 liter 2.3 kg Gasoline 1 gallon (USA) 8.7 kg Gasoline 1 liter 2.3 kg Diesel 1 gallon (UK) 12.2 kg Diesel 1 gallon (USA) 9.95 kg Diesel 1 liter 2.7 kg Oil (heating) 1 gallon (UK) 13.6 kg Oil (heating) 1 gallon (USA) 11.26 kg Oil (heating) 1 liter 3 kg
WHAT ARE CRITICAL POLLUTANTS?
CARBON MONOXIDE (CO)
At low levels, CO can exacerbate cardiovascular disease. At high levels, it can damage the central nervous system. At extremely high levels, CO is poisonous and can cause death. In the United States, 56% of CO (up to 95% in cities) is emitted by on-road vehicles.
OXIDES OF NITROGEN (NOx)
NOx can cause damage to respiratory airways. The high diversity, mobility, and reactivity of NOx enable this pollutant to contribute to numerous environmental problems such as acid rain, climate change, deteriorated water quality, ground-level ozone, air toxics, and particulate matter. Approximately 55% of man-made NOx emissions come from motor vehicles.
PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)
PM can aggravate asthma, emphysema, bronchitis, heart disease, and lung disease. It is a carrier of many toxic compounds, contributes to haze, pollutes fresh and coastal waters, and contaminates farmland and natural ecosystems. PM is emitted directly from vehicles (especially diesel) and is formed through the atmospheric reactions of NOx and oxides of sulfur (SOx).
Commonly referred to as smog, Ozone is a powerful oxidant that can reduce lung function, aggravate asthma, increase chances for respiratory illness, and lead to permanent lung damage. It can also damage plant tissue, kill plants, and reduce farm yields.
Ozone is not a direct vehicle emission; it is formed in the air through reactions of NOx, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and atmospheric air in the presence of sunlight. Generally, O3 formation in urban areas is more VOC-sensitive, while it is more NOx-sensitive in rural areas. Not all volatile organic compounds are equal when it comes to forming ozone. The following two metrics compare the potential between different VOCs.
Ozone Forming Potential: This metric, expressed in milligrams of ozone per mile driven, effectively weights the amount of VOCs that are emitted according to their propensity to form O3. For fuel-comparison purposes, this is the most important metric.
Specific Reactivity: This metric is expressed in terms of milligrams of ozone per milligram of nonmethane organic gases (a subset of volatile organic compounds). Therefore, it is a measure of the potency of the VOCs and does not take into consideration the quantity of VOCs emitted per mile of driving.
OXIDES OF SULFUR (SOx)
SOx can aggravate respiratory illness and heart and lung disease. It forms particulate matter (PM) and is a primary cause of acid rain. Most vehicle emissions studies do not consider SOx because vehicles contribute such a small portion of the total amount emitted by human activity. In 2006, ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) regulations reduced the contribution of SOx even further. Although SOx is not a major concern for conventional and alternative fuel vehicles, it is a concern for electric vehicles since electricity generation is the largest source of SOx.
Lead, which causes brain and nervous-system damage in children, but this has been successfully removed from U.S. gasoline. Since no U.S. fuels contain lead, it is not considered in our emissions comparisons for alternative fuels. But in Pakistan our refineries or petrol pump does not mentioning whether lead has been eliminates from gasoline. In Pakistan it is selling with HOBC, or premium and regular. Our environmental rules and regulation should implement the gradient in gasoline.
Some of the most harmful pollutants are not specifically regulated in the Clean Air Act. Scientists have documented negative effects of these emissions pollutants and grouped them into multiple overlapping categories. The following categories relevant to this circle intersection are highlighted in the following illustration.
TOTAL ORGANIC GASES (TOG)
Most of the non-criteria pollutants are TOGs. This broad category includes gases at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperatures. Various subsets of TOG cause headaches, dizziness, upper respiratory tract irritation, nausea, and cancer.
VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
VOCs are defined in several ways. In the broadest sense, they are organic gases. EPA defines them as such and adds that they are photo reactive (meaning that they react to produce ozone when in the sunlight).
TOTAL HYDROCARBONS (THCs)
Hydrocarbons are a group of compounds comprised of hydrogen and carbon. Unlike toxic organic compounds, they do not have to be gaseous at room temperature. Most TOGs in vehicle emissions are hydrocarbons except for those containing non-hydrogen or carbon atoms as a fundamental part of their structure (not just a contaminant). Oxygenated hydrocarbons, such as alcohols and aldehydes, are not considered THCs. Therefore, the metric "hydrocarbon equivalent" was devised to include these compounds.
Methane is an organic gas and a hydrocarbon (it's also a VOC when used in a broader definition). It is neither photoreactive nor toxic, so it is often omitted from these three categories. This results in the "non-methane" (NM) counterparts (known as NMOG, NMHC, NMHCE, and NMVOC). Methane is also a greenhouse gas (GHG) that is 23 times more potent in warming the atmosphere than carbon dioxide.
Air toxics are air pollutants that cause adverse health effects. EPA's Of the 1,162 known toxic compounds emitted from vehicles, the following four compounds are the focus of most emissions studies.
* 1,3-BUTADIENE: This compound is classified as a probable human carcinogen, but EPA is re-evaluating it based on studies associating it with leukemia. It is correlated to cardiovascular disease.
* FORMALDEHYDE: This compound is a probable human carcinogen with studies associating it to lung and airway cancer.
* BENZENE: This compound is a known human carcinogen that increases the incidence of leukemia. It also causes blood disorders in humans and is linked to impaired fertility in women. Benzene also has adverse effects on the development of animal fetuses. Both motor vehicle exhaust and evaporative gasoline emissions are major sources of benzene.
* ACETALDEHYDE. This compound is a probable human carcinogen. Long-term exposure produces symptoms similar to those of alcoholism. Acetaldehyde has many sources, including wood burning, which is the biggest contributor.
Finally these are the gases which was detected are really a harmful for us and for human creatures. Still there are many other gases which are under investigation or we really don't know. Now the best way to take care with those fuel which create poisonous pollutant in our environment.