ROSE: A GIFT OF NATURE
DR. S.M. ALAM
Jan 24 - 30, 2011
Flower is the most beautiful gift of nature to man. Rosaceae is a large family of herbs, shrubs, and trees distributed all over the earth. There are more than over 150 known varieties of roses.
Flowers are large and showy, in a number of colors from white to yellow, pink, white, orange, and red. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwest Africa. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height. Species from different parts of the world easily hybridize, which has given rise to the many types of garden roses.
Roses are best known as ornamental plants grown in the garden and sometimes indoors. They are also used for commercial perfumery and commercial cut flower crops. Some are used as landscape plants, for hedging and for other utilitarian purposes such as game cover. They also have minor medicinal uses. The majority of ornamental roses are selected hybrids. A few, mostly species roses, are grown for scented foliage, ornamental thorns or for their ornamental fruit.
Ornamental roses have been cultivated for millennia, with the earliest known cultivation known to date from at least 500 BC in Mediterranean countries, Persia and China. Many thousands of rose hybrids and cultivars have been bred and selected for garden use as flowering plants. A few species and hybrids are grown for non-floral ornamental use. Among these are those grown for prominent hips, such as the flagon shaped hips of Rosa moyesii. Sometimes even the thorns can be treated as an attraction or curiosity, such as with Rosa sericea.
Cut flower rose business is very popular in Pakistan. The country also export flowers to foreign countries and earn a huge amount of money by exporting different roses to middle east and European countries.
The agriculture in Pakistan is subsistence in nature. Both local and grafted roses are grown in all the four provinces of the country. The province of the Punjab has lion share in producing grafted roses and supply to all the cities of the country.
Any person familiar with gardening can grow roses successfully in any type of garden, but good planning is necessary.
Cut flower rose business is very popular in the country. Generally, roses are harvested and cut when in bud, and held in refrigerated conditions until ready for display at point of sale. In temperate climates, cut roses are often grown in glasshouses, and in warmer countries, they may also be grown under cover in order to ensure that the flowers are not damaged by weather and that pests and disease control can be carried out effectively. Significant quantities are grown in some tropical countries, and these are shipped by air to markets across the world.
Rose perfumes are made from attar of roses or rose oil, which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the crushed petals of roses. An associated product is rose water, which is used for cooking, cosmetics, medicine and in religious practices. The production technique originated in Persia then spread through Arabia and India, but nowadays about 70 per cent to 80 per cent of production is in the Rose Valley near Kazanluk in Bulgaria, with some production in Qamsar in Iran and Germany. The Kaaba, the House of Allah in Makkah, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is annually washed by the rose water .
Rose water made as a byproduct of rose oil production, is widely used in Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. The French are known for their rose syrup, most commonly made from an extract of rose petals. Rose hips are occasionally made into jam, jelly, and marmalade, or are brewed for tea, primarily for their high vitamin C content. They are also pressed and filtered to make rose hip syrup. Rose hips are also used to produce Rose hip seed oil, which is used in skin products and some makeup products.
Roses may be grown in any well-drained soil with optimum sunlight. Most Rose varieties are grown by budding on an under stock (lower portion of a plant) propagated from seeds or cuttings.
Clay soils, warm temperatures are always preferred, and the rose plants grow best when not set among other plants. Cow manure is the preferred fertilizer for Rose cultivation, but other organic fertilizers, especially composts, are also used. Rose plants usually require severe pruning, which must be adapted to the intended use of the flowers.
Roses are liked by everyone living on the earth and they are also loved on the basis of different nature of colors, shapes, sizes and variety of beautiful smell and unsurpassed fragrance. They have been symbols of love, romance, beauty, war, and politics. They are the only widely admired flowers all over the world and are truly called the king of flowers. It is a well documented fact that presence or use of roses for making rosary on marriage occasion, birthday, religious on funeral is a very common for festivity all over the world. The common rite or tradition of sending rose flower to an ailing relative or friend as a will of gesture is also very common, therefore, every city or a town of a country has established big shops for making standard floral garlands to meet the requirement of the people.
Different roses are traditionally grown for essential oil and rosewater, besides their ornamental and aesthetic value. Rose has also been figured in myths and legends, in poetry and music of many ancient people. The rose is indeed a universal flower found almost in all parts of the world expect in climates of Arctic and Sahara.