AGE OF PLASTIC
S.K. ANSARI & SEEMA ANSARI
Apr 11 - 17, 2011
The word plastic has been deeply ingrained into our society and culture to the point that many consider this the age of plastic. The word itself applies to materials that can be shaped and formed, however, today we use it to describe a polymer which contains additives such as pigments, fillers, antioxidants, and ultra violet (UV) protectors, to name a few.
Polymers are materials composed of molecules of high molecular weight. The unique material properties of plastics and versatile processing methods are attributed to their molecular structure. The ease with which polymers are processed and with which one can consolidate several parts into a single part, as well as their high strength-to-weight ratio, make them the most sought-after materials today.
In the last century, plastic has gained significant importance in the technological as well as economic arena. The production of plastics resins was drastically changed in the past 55 years comparing steel and aluminum.
The polyolefin industry is truly a global enterprise, with production facilities located virtually on every continent and users worldwide. Polyolefin is a group of polymers made up of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), linear-low density polyethylene (LLDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP). These polymers are used in a wide range of applications including film packaging, trash and grocery bags, pipe, household and industrial containers, carpet fibers, automotive parts and diapers.
In 2007, polyolefin demand was over 119 million metric tons. By 2012, polyolefin demand is expected to be almost 150 million metric tons. Polymer demand grows quickly in developing countries as they move toward a consumer-based economy. For example, baskets are replaced with plastic bags, wooden jugs are replaced with plastic buckets, and infrastructure improvements and commercial developments promoted plastic usage in buildings, pipes, and carpeting. While somewhat slower in developed countries, growth in polymer demand is continuous as more paper, glass, wood, and metal are replaced with increasingly sophisticated resins.
While the polyolefin industry enjoys increasing polymer demand and high operating rates at present, producers face many of the same challenges that threaten the profitability of other industries:
* Threats from low cost imports sourced from feedstock-advantaged Middle East produces.
* High natural gas and crude oil prices putting upward pressure on production costs.
* Industry consolidation has created fewer but large producers who control larger market share and more assets. Traditional ownership of oil and gas companies is not the rule anymore. Financial firms are showing interest in ownership and changing the way these companies are managed.
Look around you, and chances are high that a variety of the things you can see are made of plastics. There are hard plastics and soft plastics, clear ones and colorful ones, and plastics that look like leather, wood, or metal. Developed during the twentieth century plastics have changed the world.
NEXT GENERATION POLYMER TECHNOLOGY
For the polyethylene (PE) market, bimodal resins are highly sought-after. Bimodal resins, typically HDPE have both low and high molecular weight components that offer both processing and property benefits. The main benefits in processing include improved shear response and melt strength.
All plastics are soft and moldable during their production - that's why they're called plastics. The Greek word plasticŪs means "to mold". You can form nearly any object out of plastics from bristles on toothbrushes to bulletproof vests to fibers for making textiles for clothes. Soon, tiny plastic projectiles may be used as carriers of vaccine, making it possible to swallow the vaccine instead of getting an injection.
Plastics are synthetic materials, which mean that they are artificial, or manufactured. Synthesis means that "something is put together," and synthetic materials are made of building blocks that are put together in factories.
The building blocks for making plastics are small organic molecules - molecules that contain carbon along with other substances. They generally come from oil (petroleum) or natural gas, but they can also come from other organic materials such as wood fibers, corn, banana peels, or biomasses. Each of these small molecules is known as a monomer ("one part") because it is capable of joining with other monomers to form very long molecule chains called polymers ("many parts") during a chemical reaction called polymerization. To visualize this, think of a single paper clip as a monomer, and all the paper clips in a box chained together as a polymer.
Polymerization is often started by combining the monomers through the use of a catalyst - a substance that aids a chemical reaction without undergoing any permanent chemical change itself. During the chemical reaction, hundreds or thousands of monomers combine to form a polymer chain, and millions of polymer chains are formed at the same time. The mass of polymers is known as a resin. Resins are sold to plastics factories, usually in the form of powder, tiny granules, or pellets. The plastics manufacturer adds coloring agents and other additives that modify the properties of the material for the intended product. Finally, the resin is formed into the body of a cell phone, fibers for a sweater, or one of a myriad of other plastic products.
When you polymerize ethylene, you get a polyethylene resin. There are a number of polyethylene resins families that differ by such properties as density and molecular weight, and they can be made into a huge variety of plastic products. One of the most common is the plastic grocery bag.
Polyethylene is made from just ethylene monomers, but it is also possible to create polymers from two or more different monomers. You can make hundreds of different polymers depending on which monomers and catalysts you use.
Plastics are polymers, but polymers don't have to be plastics. The way plastics are made is actually a way of imitating nature, which has created a huge number of polymers. Cellulose, the basic component of plant cell walls is a polymer, and so are all the proteins produced in your body and the proteins you eat. Another famous example of a polymer is DNA - the long molecule in the nuclei of your cells that carries all the genetic information about you.
People have been using natural polymers including silk, wool, cotton, wood, and leather for centuries. These products inspired chemists to try to create synthetic counterparts, which they have done with amazing success.
Plastics are classified into two categories according to what happens to them when they're heated to high temperatures. Thermoplastics keep their plastic properties. They melt when heated, and then harden again when cooled. Thermosets, on the other hand, are permanently set once they're initially formed and can't be melted. If they're exposed to enough heat, they'll crack or become charred. 80 per cent of the plastic produced are thermoplastic.
The density of most plastics is considerably lower than that of metals, a useful feature where reduction in weight is required for it makes a number of plastics stronger than metals on a weight basis. On a volume basis, however, the opposite is normally true. Polymers and plastics generally have densities in the range 0.83 to 2.5 g/cm≥, although some, such as foamed plastics, have densities as low as 0.01 g/cm≥ and filled plastics have densities as high as 3.5 g/cm≥.
MAJOR ADVANTAGES OF POLYMERS
Polypropylene is very popular as a high volume commodity polymer. However, it is preferred to as a low-cost engineering plastic. Higher stiffness at lower density and resistance to higher temperatures when not subjected to mechanical stress are the key properties. In addition to this, PP offer good fatigue resistance, good chemical resistance, good environment stress cracking resistance, good detergent resistance, good hardness and contact transparency and ease of machining, together with good processability by injection molding and extrusion.
Firstly, there is an environmental impact from plastics production. However, the plastics industry has worked hard to reduce energy and water use, as well as waste generation during the manufacturing processes.
Secondly, during their lives, plastic products can save energy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions in a variety of ways. For example, they're lightweight, so transporting them is energy efficient. And, plastic parts in cars and airplanes reduce the weight of those vehicles and therefore less energy is needed to operate them and lower emissions are created.
PLASTIC IN AERONAUTICS
Plastics were first introduced to the world of aerospace during World War II mostly because other materials were limited. During the war, plastic slowly started to be used as a substitute for rubber in items such as fliers' boots and fuel-tank linings. Eventually, it became the preferred material for these applications. Plastic was then used with airborne radar systems and viewed as a significant advancement in this technology because it allowed waves to pass through with minimal loss.
The fact that plastic was able to withstand heat made it an important material in aerospace technology. Today, plastics are used in the solid fuel boosters form rockets and in the ablative shields for reentry of space shuttles.
Plastic materials are also used in the making of helicopters because they are rigid and durable, yet flexible enough to withstand the vibrations made by helicopters. The fact that plastic is both lightweight and strong also has its advantages in the field of aerospace because the weight of the aircraft can be reduced by using plastic. This results in improved aerodynamics, which leads to improved fuel efficiency and performance. In fact, reducing the weight of a jetliner by just one pound saves $1,000 in fuel during the liner's lifetime.
PLASTICS IN THE BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
Plastics play a significant role in the building and construction industry as well. In fact, the industry is the second largest consumer of plastic, followed only by the packaging industry. In the construction industry, plastics are used for items such as pipes and valves. They are also used for decorative elements and heavy-duty uses because they are so easy to handle, are durable, and are attractive. Plastics are commonly found in bathroom units, plumbing fixtures, flooring, siding, panels, insulation, windows, doors, gratings, glazing, and railings.
Within piping and valves, plastics are highly used because of their superior resistance to corrosion. In fact, they can be used for everything from freshwater to saltwater, from crude oil to laboratory waste. In addition, they are much lighter than other materials and easier to install. They are also less expensive.
PLASTICS AND ELECTRONICS
Plastics are used with electronic devices for a wide number of purposes. Due to the thermal and insulating properties of plastic, it is ideal for use in house wiring. In fact, nearly all modern homes use plastic electrical connectors, switches, and receptacles.
Small appliances also take advantage of plastic. Plastic is durable, yet lightweight and attractive. Therefore, it is great for making small appliances such as can openers, food processors, microwave ovens, mixers, coffee makers, shavers, irons, and hair dryers. Even refrigerators use a special plastic foam for insulation purposes, while the interior is made from plastic that is durable and easy to clean. Without plastic, these products would last about half as long and would use 25-30 per cent more energy.
Computers as we know them today would probably not exist without plastic. Plastic made smaller computers possible by being able to house all of the electronics necessary within a dust free and well-insulated environment. Components such as circuit boards and computer chips are able to be miniaturized without losing their abilities - or while also improving their performance - thanks to the use of plastic.
Of course, plastic has also made it possible to introduce electronics to children at younger ages. Even newborns can enjoy electronic toys to stimulate and entertain them as they grow. Thanks to plastic, these toys can be made to be safe and durable.
PLASTICS AND PACKAGING
Plastic is so versatile that it can be used for a variety of packaging purposes. If the product needs to be well protected, the plastic can be rigid and tough. If, on the other hand, the packaging needs to be convenient to carry, the plastic can be flexible. Or, a combination of the two can be achieved. Furthermore, the packaging can be designed into any shape or size desired and it can be clear or any color imaginable.
Plastic packaging helps keep people, the earth, and animals healthy in a number of ways. For example, plastic packaging is used by medical facilities to dispose of needles and other items that may be contaminated. Similarly, fragile medical devices are often shipped in plastic containers because they can be precisely designed to prevent them from being damaged during shipping. Intravenous bags are also made with special see through plastic to help the medical staff monitor the flow and intake of important nutrients and medicines.
Plastic is also used to store a variety of goods commonly found in the home. By creating shatterproof bottles with plastic, family members are protected from harm if the product should accidentally fall. Leak proof and child-resistant packaging can also be created with plastic.
USE OF PLASTIC IN TRANSPORTATION
Plastic is a popular choice when making modes of transportation because it is tough, resistant to corrosion, durable, lightweight, and easy to color. For these reasons, plastic is found in the fenders, bumpers, trunk lids, housings for headlights and side view mirrors, grilles, hoods, doors, and wheel covers.
Through the use of plastic, the average passenger car has lost 145 pounds since 1988. The lighter weight translates to better fuel efficiency and has saved approximately 21 million barrels of oil.
Trains and busses also take advantage of plastic. Modern designs use plastic in the window and doorframes and in the seating. Subway cars use plastic for the seats, the seat covers, in making the carpeting, in creating the handles, in the interior panels, and even in the polycarbonate windows.
Of course, other means of transportation such as bicycles, roller skates, kayaks, canoes, skateboards, snowboards, surfboards, motorcycles, and even some athletic shoes take full advantage of plastic in their creation.
The physical mixture of polymer and additives is called a plastic compound, the precise nature and amount of material to be added depending on the polymer, the processing method used to convert the plastic into a finished article, and the properties required in the finished article. The selection of additives and the operation of mixing them with the polymer constituent is known as compounding. The proportions of the various ingredients of a plastic compound constitute its formulation. The base resin in a compound may be homo polymer or copolymer, or it may be a mixture of the two.
The term additive may be applied to any substance that is incorporated, generally in small concentrations (there are exceptions), in plastic compounds to alter the properties of the resin, the ultimate purpose being either to facilitate processing or to change physical, chemical or electrical properties of end products. The main classes of the various additives used in the manufacture of plastic products will be discussed briefly below.
Lubricants are incorporated in plastic compounds to provide external and internal lubrication. They eliminate external friction between the polymer and the metal surface of the processing equipment; and they improve the internal flow characteristics of the polymer, adding to the wetting properties of the compounding ingredients. Many lubricant systems used in plastic compounds perform both functions. At present, the most common lubricants are synthetic and natural waxes, and low molecular weight polyethylene. A major application for internal lubrication is in rigid PVC where it is necessary to eliminate the high shear rate that develops in the melt during processing. Absence of lubrication will cause degradation during processing and shorten long-term durability or impair adequate service performance of the plastic product.
Stabilizers provide protection against degradation caused by heat, oxidation, and solar radiation. Thus, when used in plastic compositions they may be classified as heat (or thermal) stabilizers, antioxidants and UV light stabilizers.
It is the role of heat stabilizers to prevent the polymer from degrading during the short period of high temperature (150 to 300∞C) processing and to protect the finished plastic article against slow aging over longer periods at service temperatures.
Antioxidants inhibit or retard oxidative degradation at normal or elevated temperatures during processing, storage or service. Most polymers undergo some oxidative degradation, but hydrocarbon polymers are especially susceptible. Antioxidants, therefore, are generally added in small quantities.
WEATHERING OF ORGANIC BUILDING MATERIALS
The durability of materials used in building and subsequently exposed to weather is of great interest to the architect, the builder, and the ultimate user.
TYPES OF ORGANIC BUILDING MATERIALS
Organic materials used on or in buildings can be classified according to their use. They include liquid coatings (paints), plastics, sealants, and roofing materials. Wood, although often placed in a separate category, is really an organic building material. Organic materials frequently contain inorganic compounds such as pigments, but the basic properties of the mixture derive from the organic matrix in which the particles are dispersed. The differences between the kinds or organic materials are principally due to the type and molecular weight of the resin or binder used.
Because coatings are applied as liquids that must turn into solids, the original molecular size is small to intermediate and never becomes extremely large, even when the film is completely cured. With lower molecular weight materials, the final polymer is formed predominantly after application. If the resin is already in its polymeric form before application, the coating is called a lacquer if dissolved in a solvent or a latex paint if dispersed in water. Because of their molecular size, coatings do not have great structural strength and are, therefore, applied to substrates.
If molecular size is increased to provide more resistant coatings, the viscosity of dissolved resins increases so much that the amount of solvent necessary for application results in impractically thin films. Similarly, dispersed resins become too hard to flow into a continuous film after application. It is necessary, therefore, to find other methods of application, and one is to melt the resin by applying heat either to the resin or a solution of it. In the latter case, application of the material is by hot spray, while solid resin is melted after it has been applied in the form of a dispersion or dry powder.
Increasing molecular weight also leads to increasing structural strength because of greater molecular attraction and entanglement of long chains. When the material becomes strong enough to support itself at the temperature of use, a substrate is no longer required and the material is called a plastic. Strictly speaking, any material that exhibits plastic flow at normal temperatures is a plastic, but the term has come to apply chiefly to those organic materials that at a suitable stage in manufacture can be molded or cast through the use of heat, pressure, or both, into the desired shape. Plastics can vary from hard and brittle (un-plasticized polyvinyl chloride) to soft and flexible (urethane foam and synthetic rubber). Again, there is no distinct line between plastics and coatings. In some cases, one resin can be melt-applied, when it is called a plastic, or applied from solution, when it is called a coating.
PLASTIC USAGE IN DAILY LIFE
|POLYMER & PLASTIC||DAY TO DAY APPLICATIONS|
|ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene)||* Refrigerator: Doors & Food liners for the interior wall of the refrigerator.|
|* Small Appliance Housing Tool Application: These include hair dryers, curing irons, blenders, electric can openers, coffee makers, food processor, electric fans, vacuum cleaners, electric drills, leaf blowers, and lawnmower decks.|
|* Automotive Applications: Instrument panels, armrests, interior trim panels, seat belt retainers, glove compartment doors, and lift gates. ABS plating grades are used in wheel cover, grilles, headlight, mirror housings and decorative trim.|
|* Drain: Waste, vent pipe fitting, and pool filter housings.|
|* Telecommunications: Telephone housing, portable phones, typewriter housings, and keyboard keys.|
|* Business & Consumer Electronics: Video Cassettes, television, audiovisual equipment, computer housings, printers, and copiers.|
|* Household Items: Countertops sink and tub surrounds, and roof-mounted air conditioning units.|
|* Recreational: Motorcycle moldings, sailboats, airplanes, campers, hard-sided luggage, and picnic cooler liners.|
|* Other applications: Briefcases, cosmetic cases, household packaging, toys, and photographic equipment.|
|Polyacetal (POM)||* Industrial: Conveyor links and slats, cams, bearing, wear stops, hose connectors, valve bodies, pumps (housings, pistons, valves, and impellers) and gears.|
|- Fuel handling systems: Filler caps, level sensors, floats, pumps, and reservoirs.|
|- Trims: Seat belt buckle housings, window cranks, shift level handles, knobs, buttons, mounting clips, visor mounting brackets, levers, exterior door pulls, mirror housing, brackets, bumper strip end plugs, and antenna bases.|
|- Instrument panel components: Cluster gears, bearing, housings, connectors, slide plates, and panel locks.|
|- Under the hood components: Fan, fan blades, snap-fitting housings, and tubing connectors.|
|- Refrigerators: Shelving clips, brackets, bearings, and gears|
|- Washer & Dryers: Gears, bearings, wear strips, instrument housing & hose connectors.|
|- Dishwasher: Rack rollers, spray nozzles, soap dispensers and filter supports.|
|* Home Electronics:|
|- Keyboards: Key caps, plungers, guides, and base plates.|
|- Telephones: Push buttons, gears, bearings, and springs.|
|- Modular components: Clips, pegboards, connectors, wear strips for drawers, latch springs, and clamps.|
|- Audio and Video DVD players and recorders: Tapes hubs, guide rollers, cam, gears, bushings, and bearings.|
|- Water meters: Housings, cams, gears, dials, and pressure plates.|
|- Faucets: Underbodies, cartridges, stems, packing nuts, and waterways.|
|- Water Softeners: Pump housings, pistons, impellers, and valves.|
|- Filter: Bodies, plates, and screens.|
|- Pressure Regulators: Bodies, stems, knobs, and pressure plates.|
|- Potable water distributors: Fittings drain valves, stop valves, and metal pipe adapters.|
|- Personal care: Mascara, perfumes, and deodorant containers, combs, aerosol valves, soap dispenser, and cosmetic applicator handles.|
|- Small Appliances: Motor gears, cams, bearings, pump, glue applicator, housings and springs.|
|- Toys: Shells, frames, gears, bearings, guides, wear plates, clamps, pump components, valves, and buckles.|
|* Hardware: Housing.Drapery and Venetian blind guides, hangers, rollers, bearings, furniture caster, slide plates and locks, tool holders, bearing, gears &|
|* Irrigation: Sprinkler nozzles, arms, gears, housings, waterways, pump housings, impellers, pistons, metering valve bodies, knobs, stems, and internal components.|
|* Agriculture: Shift levers and housings, hydraulic connectors, bearings, gears, and seed application disks.|
|Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA)||* Automobile: Tail lights, parking light lenses, decorative emblems, medallions, & name plates|
|* Household: Light fixtures, picture frames, and decorative articles.|
|* Transparent Items: Available in a rainbow of sparkling colors, ideal for packaging, jewelry, and signs.|
|* Electronics: Used on print circuit board coating applications.|
|High Temperature Nylon (HTN)||* Transformer tri-clamp.|
|* Automotive window glass lift motor housing.|
|* Automotive safety:|
|- Air bag sensor housings, ABS(brake sensors), speed & temperature sensors.|
|* Solenoid coil bobbins|
|* Connector lamp sockets|
|* Automotive & transmission bearings, thrust washers, timing gears, valve stems and retainers, seal rings, piston skirts, and lifter wear pads.|
|Ionomer Polymer||* Packaging: Film|
|* Sporting Goods:|
|Golf balls, bowling pins, ski boot components, Sport footwear, roller skates, skis, and bowling machine components.|
|Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP)||* Duel oven handles.|
|* Electrical & Electronic components.|
|* Vapor phase & infrared solderable connectors, sockets, relay & capacitor housings, active & passive molded printed board components, thin walled coil forms (bobbins), brackets.|
|Polyamide (PA)||* Transportation:|
|- Electrical Connector, wire jackets, emission canisters, light duty gear, windshield wipers & speedometers.|
|- Glass reinforced nylons are used for engine fan, radiator heads, brake & power steering fluid reservoirs, valve covers, sensors, & fuel injectors.|
|- Mineral reinforced resins are used for mirror housings & wire tub covers.|
|- Nylons are used not only for electrical components, but also for mechanical parts, housings, and other application in power tools, washers, and various small appliances.|
|* Telecommunication: Relays, fittings, & connections.|
|* Industrial: Hammer Handles, mowing machine parts, un-lubricated gears, bearings, anti-friction parts.|
|* Food & Textile Processing Equipment: Pumps, valves, meters, agricultural & printing devices, business & vending machines.|
|* Consumer Products: Toughened nylon applications such as ski boots, ice and roller skate supports, racket sports equipment, bicycle wheels, kitchen utensils, toys & photographic equipment.|
|* Nylon Films: They are widely used for packaging meats & cheeses & for cook-in-bag and pouches. Nylon films are also used as an enclosure for the thermo set fabrication of small airplane wings.|
|* Wire &Cable Jacketing: They are used mostly as a protective layer over primary insulation.|
|* Nylon Tubing: They are used to convey brake fluids, refrigerants, or as lining for flexible cables.|
|* Extrusion: Sheets, rods and machining stock shapes.|
|* Nylon 6/12 Monofilaments: They find extensive applications in brush bristles, fishing lines, ropes, and sewing thread. They are also used cloth stiffening, rugs, and filter screen.|
|* Polyetherimide (PEI) Automotive: Temperature & fuel sensors, air handling devices, and metalized reflectors.|
|* Electrical & Electronics: Connectors, printed circuit boards & integrated circuit chip carriers, burn sockets, flexible circuitry, bobbins and explosive proof box.|
|* Packaging: Steam resistant, thermal stability, microwave resistant & compliance to Food and Drug Administration requirements.|
|* Industrial Applications: Corrosion resistant fluid & air handling components, mechanical couplers, and threaded fasteners.|
|Polyacrylate (PAR)||* Automotive: Headlight housings and brake light reflectors, exterior trim parts, and alloy PAR body panels|
|* Safety Equipment: Helmet, face shields, mining light covers, and traffic signal lenses.|
|* Electrical & Electronics: Electrical connectors, relay housings, coil bobbins, switches, and fuse covers.|
|Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)||* Aircraft & Aerospace: Engine components, cabin interior material, air ducts, and exterior parts.|
|* Electrical & Electronic: Wire & Cables.|
|* Chemical Processing: Pump components and oil seals.|
|* Industrial Equipment: Journal bearing surface.|
|Polycarbonate (PC)||* Blue ray discs & DVD, Motorcycle helmet, 5 gallon water bottle|
|* Electrical & Business Equipment: Business machine housings, computer parts, connectors, terminal blocks, & telecommunication components.|
|* Appliances: Food processors, electrical kitchen components, power tool housing, refrigerator drawers, and vacuum cleaner components|
|* Transportation: Tail & head lights, signal light lenses & Housing, runway markers, blow molded spoilers, instrument panels, & seat backs.|
|* Safety & Sports: Sports helmets, recreational vehicle hoods, windshield, head lights, boat propellers, and sunglass lenses|
|* Food Service: Microwave cookware, serving trays, mugs, pitchers, water bottles, baby bottles, and institutional storage containers.|
|* Medical: Tubing connectors, dialysis components & devices, blood oxygenators, filter housing, lenses, gamma sterilization appliances, and surgical staplers.|
|Polyphenylene Oxide (PPO)||* Blow Molded Products: these resins are used for the office furniture, automotive steering column covers, and appliance doors and ducts.|
|* Flame Retardant Products: They include business machine housings, decks and enclosures.|
|* Automotive: They include instrument panels, wheel covers, fuse blocks, trim, and windshield wiper blades.|
|* Electrical Applications: They include fiber optics connectors, ceiling boxes, control housings, and load center.|
|* Industrial: Pumps, impellers, shower heads, chemical process equipment, and filter bodies.|
|Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT)||* Building & Construction: House wares, lawn and Garden.|
|* Automotive: Grills, body panels, fenders, wheel covers, components for door handle, mirrors and window. Under the hood distributor caps, rotors, ignition components, head lamp systems, windshield wiper assemblies, water pumps, and brakes systems.|
|* Electrical & Electronics: Switches, relays, motor housings, tube sockets, photoelectric cell receptacles, ballast housings, fuse cases, key caps for computer keyboards, chips carriers, and connectors.|
|Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)||* Automotive: Body panels, spoilers, door handles, distributor caps, rotors, ignition components, head lamps, and windshield wiper.|
|* Electrical & Electronic: Switches, relays, motor housings, tube sockets, ballast housings, fuse cases, chip carriers, and connectors.|
|* Consumer Uses: Bottles, vacuum cleaner parts, fans, gears, furniture, iron skirts, hair dryer housings and coffee makers.|
|* Polyethylene (PE) Packaging: Packaging film, rigid and semi-rigid packaging products.|
|* Transportation: Automotive fuel tank.|
|* Medical: Hygiene products, medical application trays, and containers.|
|* Consumer: Toys, blow molded bottles, bottle caps, household goods, kitchen utensils.|
|* Appliances: Portable containers, outdoor furniture, and irrigation.|
|* Industrial: Pipes, connectors, buckets, containers, processing equipment, and hardware items for construction.|
|* Electrical: Wire and cable insulation|
|Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)||* Aerospace Industry: Hose and tubing for hydraulic, fuel, oil, pneumatic, and oxygen systems, circuit board laminates in military defense and commercial flight communication equipment, sealing application in turbine engines, alternators, and rotary actuators.|
|* Automotive: Power steering & transmission seals & rings. Cable & hose linings, head gasket coatings, shock absorber seals.|
|* Petrochemicals: Lining pipes, valve, pumps, tank, tubing, fittings, column packing, and processing equipment.|
|* Medical: Vascular grafts, cardiovascular patch, surgical membranes, soft tissue patches, sutures, ligaments, catheters, and piping system.|
|* Electrical & Electronics: Aircraft and fire alarm equipment, cable & printed circuit board substrates.|
|* Other application: Nonstick cookware, coating and impregnation of valve and pump packing, coating on glass cloth provides outstanding weathering & ultraviolet radiation resistance.|
|Polypropylene (PP)||* Packaging: Flexible packaging films, BOPP Films.|
|* Fabrics: Stretched and oriented monofilament, tapes for textile, carpeting, insulated medical fabrics and woven carpet backing.|
|* Automotive: Interior components, bumpers, spoilers, air vent systems, under the hood components, internal wheel guards, and bellows.|
|* Medical & Personal Care: Hygiene products, household goods and medical application trays, strainers, and containers.|
|* Consumer Products: Closure, over caps, trigger sprayers, rigid and semi-rigid packaging, VCR, toys, electrical hardware, appliance housings and components, outdoor furniture, and luggage.|
|* Bottle: Injection Blow molded stretch bottle with excellent stiffness, impact resistance, and clarity.|
|Polystyrene (PS)||* Single service items, such as plates, glasses, and cups.|
|* Packaging items such as cassette boxes and compact disc jewel boxes.|
|* Consumer durables, such as house wares and cosmetic containers.|
|* Blow molded medical and pharmaceutical packaging.|
|* Extruded solid sheets, foamed or biaxial oriented sheets for thermoforming; blends with styrene butadiene rubble block copolymer are used where clarity and toughness are desired.|
|* Shower curtain sheets, easy to color with a printable surface.|
|* Oriented polystyrene food contact articles, such as cookie containers and chocolate trays.|
|* Mold parts and components for refrigerators and other appliance, consumer durables, such as toys, house wares, video cassettes.|