DIABETES PHENOMENON

DR. S.M. ALAM
(feedback@pgeconomist.com)

Mar 28 - Apr 3, 2011

Diabetes is a condition in which a defect in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both leads to consistent increase in blood-sugar levels.

The insulin, which was discovered by two Canadians in 1921, is the hormone which unlocks the cells in the human body and allows the sugar (glucose) in the body to be used for energy at once. Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is classed as a metabolism disorder. Metabolism refers to the way our bodies use digested food for energy and growth. Most of what we eat is broken down into glucose. Glucose is a form of sugar in the blood - it is the principal source of fuel for our bodies. When our food is digested the glucose makes its way into our bloodstream. Our cells use the glucose for energy and growth. However, glucose cannot enter our cells without insulin being present - insulin makes it possible for our cells to take in the glucose. Insulin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas. After eating, the pancreas automatically releases an adequate quantity of insulin to move the glucose present in our blood into the cells, and lowers the blood sugar level. A person with diabetes has a condition in which the quantity of glucose in the blood is too elevated (hyperglycemia). This is because the body either does not produce enough insulin, produces no insulin, or has cells that do not respond properly to the insulin the pancreas produces. This results in too much glucose building up in the blood. This excess blood glucose eventually passes out of the body in urine. So, even though the blood has plenty of glucose, the cells are not getting it for their essential energy and growth requirements.

After a meal, a portion of the food a person eats is broken down into sugar (glucose). The sugar then passes into the bloodstream and to the body's cells via a hormone (called insulin) that is produced by the pancreas.

Normally, the pancreas produces the right amount of insulin to accommodate the quantity of sugar. However, if the person has diabetes, either the pancreas produces little or no insulin or the cells do not respond normally to the insulin. Sugar builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and then passes from the body unused.

In the human body the blood sugar normally comes from carbohydrates in the food we eat. These are broken down in the digestive system and then transported around the body to be used as natural fuel for the energy which human body needs in every day life. It has been reported that unless we have enough insulin the sugar in our body cannot be used efficiently, hence causing our blood sugar levels to rise. If left untreated, high blood sugar levels can cause long-term health problems.

Diabetes is a progressive disorder because the cells producing insulin keep on decreasing over a time leading to worsening of symptoms. When the blood sugar levels remain high, it attacks the tissues in the body forming harmful byproducts. These alter the functioning of the cells thus leading to cell damage or death. In the long run, diabetes is associated with damage, dysfunction and failure of many organs like heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves and blood vessels.

Being diagnosed with diabetes will give us the opportunity to make the necessary changes to our lifestyle, therefore enabling us to avoid some of the risks associated with diabetes. The normal range for control of diabetes in blood sugar is 80 to 120 mg/dl (FBS) and 2 hours after meal 140 to 160mg/dl (RBS) normal. The blood pressure should be 130/80 to 140/90 mmHg. Good cholesterol is (HDL) 45mg/dl for men and 55mg/dl for women. Similarly, bad cholesterol both for men and women should be 100mg/dl. Triglyceride also a kind of cholesterol should be slightly less than150mg/dl. The acetylated hemoglobin should be less than 7 per cent. Some of the important tests for diabetes patients are eye examination, kidney test for micro-albumin urea as well as foot examination.

SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES

Usually, the symptoms of Type I diabetes are obvious. That is not true for Type II. Many people with Type II do not discover they have diabetes until they are treated for a complication such as heart disease, blood vessel disease (atherosclerosis), stroke, blindness, skin ulcers, kidney problems, nerve trouble, or impotence.

Each type of diabetes has different causes so they are treated differently. As the causes are closely related the symptoms are also very similar. A diabetes patient has the following symptom:

Dehydration and excessive or abnormal thirst and dry mouth, a need to frequently go to the toilet for urination, extreme lethargy, excessive tiredness, constant hunger, sudden weight loss, cut and wound may be very slow to heal, recurrent infections, blurred vision etc.

Type 1 diabetes occurs when the insulin producing cells in the pancreas are damaged. Thus the pancreas eventually stops producing any insulin at all. It usually affects young people, although it can occur at any age and can develop very quickly over a short space of time. It is controlled with insulin injections. The amount of insulin we need is balanced against the levels of sugar in our blood. Insulin is a hormone made by our body to help glucose move from the blood into body cells. When there is decreased or no production of insulin in the body, it needs to be injected from outside with an insulin pen, syringe or insulin pump. Insulin cannot be taken orally. Currently, the most commonly used insulin types are human and analogues. Taking insulin helps control blood glucose levels and provides energy to body cell. Insulin is known to give better blood sugar control in patients who have been using tablets, thus leading to multiple other benefits like decrease in long-term complications of the heart, eyes, kidney, nerves, and blood vessels. If initiated early, insulin is also known to preserve the function of insulin producing cells within our body therefore leading to lesser dosage requirement.

Type 2 diabetes occurs when the cells in our body are resistant to the effects of insulin. Our pancreas does not produce enough insulin. It develops slowly and gradually over a long period of time, so the symptoms may not be noticed and the condition often goes undiagnosed. Type 2 diabetes is usually found in middle aged or elderly people, but it is increasingly being diagnosed in early adulthood and sometimes in childhood. It generally runs in families and is particularly prevalent in certain ethnic groups. It can sometimes be treated with diet and exercise. If that is not enough to control it, we will be given prescribed tablets, or we may need to move on to insulin injections. There are some tablets which have potential effect to control this disease and generally improves insulin sensitivity, preserves B-cell function, reduces the onset of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications effective glycaemic control, low level of hypoglycaemia and well established safety profile.

Managing Diabetes: Firstly, our healthcare professionals will help us to find ways to keep our blood sugar levels under control. We must choose suitable diet and do regular walking for 20 minutes 2-3 days a week. If anyone has type 2 diabetes then we may use tablets recommended by a recognized doctor, or to stimulate our pancreas to produce more insulin. If it is out of control then doctor will recommend insulin. If the sugar in the blood is high then we have to test our blood for sugar and also our urine to find out the presence of sugar in the blood and in the urine.

MANAGEMENT OF TYPE I DIABETES

Virtually everyone with Type I diabetes must inject insulin to make up for their deficiency. Until recently, insulin came only from the pancreases of cows and pigs (with pork insulin more closely duplicating human insulin). While beef, pork, and beef/pork combinations are still widely used, there are now two types of "human" insulin available: semi synthetic (made by converting pork insulin to a form identical to human) and recombinant (made by using genetic engineering). All insulin helps glucose levels remain near normal (about 70 to 120 mg/dl).

Different types of insulin work for different periods of time. The numbers shown below are only averages. The onset (how long it takes to reach the bloodstream to begin lowering the blood sugar), peaking (how long it takes to reach maximum strength) and duration (how long it continues to lower the blood sugar) of insulin activity can vary from person to person and even from day to day in the same person.

PREVENTION OF DIABETES

There is no foolproof way to prevent diabetes, but steps can be taken to improve the chances of avoiding it.

EXERCISE: Studies of both men and women have shown that vigorous exercise, even if done only once a week, has a protective effect against diabetes. Exercise not only promotes weight loss but lowers blood sugar as well. Walking and physical activity are good exercises for pleasure, weight loss and psychological wellbeing. In past people had to walk everywhere, but with the advent of the car people seem to walk less and drive more. Even when the store is only a few blocks they would prefer to drive. Therefore, people are not losing weight as easily as they once did. Walking helps our cardiovascular system by getting our heart rate up. The faster our blood pumps in our body the more adapted it will become to physical exertion and the higher the levels of fitness one can achieve. The more we work out the more blood our heart is able to pump and the healthier we feel. Walking also has the added benefit of being an exercise that is sufficient for any fitness level. If we are old then we can walk at a slow pace, if we are in good physical condition we can turn our walk into as fast as we want. The choice is purely ours and we can do what feels right to us. The other benefit of walking is that it is easy to adjust our walking habits to get the maximum benefit. Towards the end of our good walk we may need to push our fitness level a little higher and we have the ability to adjust our speed quickly and without strain.

LOSE WEIGHT: There is evidence that both men and women who gain weight in adulthood increase their risk of diabetes. A study conducted at Harvard showed that adult women who gained 11 to 17 pounds since the age of 18 doubled their risk of diabetes; those who gained between 18 and 24 pounds almost tripled their risk. 90 percent of diabetics are overweight.

DIET: The use of a diet low in calories and in saturated fat is an ideal strategy for preventing Type II diabetes.

Stop smoking: Smoking is especially dangerous for people with diabetes who are at risk for heart and blood vessel diseases.

CURE OF DIABETES THROUGH THE VERSES OF THE HOLY QURAN

The holy Quran has details information about the cure of many diseases attacked to the human beings. One can fully save himself from any disease only by fearing Allah and obeying His orders, teachings of the Holy Quran and the teachings of our Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH). It is urgently necessary to always remember Al-Mighty Allah orders mentioned in the Holy Quran and follow strictly the daily recitation of Holy Quran with meaning and the translation.

For quick recovery of diabetes (sugar) one must recite daily the following verses (ayats, signs, revelation, lessons) of the Holy Quran: "And say (O Muhammad (PBUH): My Lord! Let my entry (to the city of Al-Madinah be good and (likewise) my exit (from the city of Makkah) be good. And grant me from You an authority to help me (or a firm sign or proof)", (Surah 17, Bani Israel, Verse-80). Also should recite: "Verily (Allah) is Able to bring him back (to life)", Surah At-Tarq-86 Verse-8) and Surah 100 Al-Adiyat (1-11Verse). Along with this, we also must recite 3 or 5 times Darud Ibrahami. Ayats Shiafa (9:14, 10:57, 16:69, 17:82, 26:80, 41:44), Ayats Salamati (36:58, 37:79, 109, 120,130, 39:73, 97:5). Ninety nine names of Allha and His Rasul (PBUH), Duae Ganjul Arash, Darood Taj, Darood Tanjina, Sadul Astagfar, Duea Qanut, all six Kalamas, Darood Ibrahami.

The observance of moral value is also the mandatory item in the recovery of any disease. These include truthfulness, faithfulness, chastity, modesty, bravery, generosity, faithfulness of trusts (obligations, payments etc.), and etiquette. Avoidance of all corrupt matters that Allah has forbidden.

Displaying kindness to the parents, spouse and relatives is an extraordinary message for avoiding stress. For a married person a good spouse/life partner is a model for reducing all types of stresses and bringing peace in mind. But, in the present day, it is very difficult rather impossible to get a good life partner. This is because we have deviated from the right paths of Allah, the Omnipotent, the Omnipresent, and the Omniscient.