OCEANS AND SEAS
DR. S.M. ALAM AND DR. M.A. KHAN
Dec 20 - 26, 2010
Oceans and seas cover almost three quarters of the surface of the earth and contain 97.1 per cent of all the waters. High level of salts make the ocean water unfit for human use. Fresh water on earth exists as 0.02 per cent of the total. It is very interesting to note that in the Holy Quran, there appears 42 times the names of sea and 13 times that of earth.
If we add the figures of sea and earth it comes to 32+13=45. The Al-Mighty Allah revealed this fact to our Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) through the Holy Quran many centuries before.
The name of seas have been appeared in many Surahs of the Holy Quran. The praise of Al-Mighty Allah can be noted from these Quranic words as mentioned in Surah Al-Kahf-18, Verse-109: Say O Muhammad (PBUH) to mankind "If the sea were ink for (writing) the words of my Lord, surely, the sea would be exhausted before the Words of my Lord would be finished, even if We brought (another sea) like it for its aid". In another Surah Luqman-31, Verse-27, it is stated that: "And if all the trees on the earth were pens and the sea were ink wherewith to write, with seven seas behind it to add to its (supply), yet the Words of Allah would not be exhausted. Verily, Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise."
The oceans are much bigger than the seas and they are linked with oceans. It has been reported that every ocean on earth has its own seas. The oceans are so big that they affect the way we live greatly. This includes our weather, which means whether it will be hot and dry or cold and stormy. The smaller regions of the oceans are called seas, gulfs, bays, cape, straits etc. The area of the world ocean is 361million km3, its volume is 1370 million km3 and its average depth is 3790 m. Nearly half of the marine waters are over 3000 m deep.
The Pacific Ocean (Between The West of The Americas, The East of Asia, and Australia): The Pacific Ocean has 32 seas. It is 36,000 feet deep at its deepest point.
The Atlantic Ocean (Between Europe, Africa and The East side of The Americas): The Atlantic Ocean has 34 seas. It is 28,000 feet deep at its deepest point.
The Arctic Ocean (surrounds The Arctic): The Arctic Ocean has 13 seas. It is 17,880 feet deep at its deepest point.
The Southern Ocean (surrounds the Antarctic): The Southern Ocean has nine seas. It is 23,376 feet deep at its deepest point.
The Indian Ocean (surrounds The South of Asia): The Indian Ocean has eight seas. It is 25,000 feet deep.
A sea is a large expanse of saline water connected with an ocean. The dead sea is very unique sea in the world. It is below 1293 feet from the surface of the sea. It contains nearly 35 per cent of dissolved salts mainly sodium chloride. Life of any type does not exist in this salty water. It is in Jordon-Israel board in the Middle East. All other oceans and seas around the world contain normally 3-4 per cent of dissolved salts. The Arabian sea at Karachi also contains about 3.5 per cent dissolved salts, mostly sodium chloride.
Large lakes are sometimes referred to as island seas, such as the great lakes. If the Ocean was a tree, the Seas would be its branches. Unlike the Oceans, the seas have some land surrounding them. The seas have salt water and different seas include:
The Caribbean (surrounding the Caribbean) is in the Atlantic Ocean.
The Red Sea (the algae that lives there makes it look red) is in the Indian Ocean.
The Black Sea (hydrogen makes it appear Black) is in the Atlantic Ocean.
The Mediterranean is in the Atlantic Ocean.
The South China Sea is in the Pacific Ocean.
The Caspian Sea surrounds Asia and Russia. Even though it is called a sea it is the biggest lake on Earth.
The following table lists the world's oceans and seas, according to area and average depth.
|NAME||AREA||AVERAGE DEPTH||GREATEST KNOWN DEPTH||PLACE OF GREATEST KNOWN DEPTH|
|SQ. MI.||SQ. KM||FT.||M||FT.||M|
|Pacific Ocean||60,060,700||155,557,000||13,215||4,028||36,198||11,033||Mariana Trench|
|Atlantic Ocean||29,637,900||76,762,000||12,880||3,926||30,246||9,219||Puerto Rico Trench|
|Indian Ocean||26,469,500||68,556,000||13,002||3,963||24,460||7,455||Sunda Trench|
|Southern Ocean1||7,848,300||20,327,000||13,100-16,400||4,000-5,000||23,736||7,235||South Sandwich Trench|
|Arctic Ocean||5,427,000||14,056,000||3,953||1,205||18,456||5,625||77∞45'N; 175∞W|
|Mediterranean Sea2||1,144,800||2,965,800||4,688||1,429||15,197||4,632||Off Cape Matapan, Greece|
|Caribbean Sea||1,049,500||2,718,200||8,685||2,647||22,788||6,946||Off Cayman Islands|
|South China Sea||895,400||2,319,000||5,419||1,652||16,456||5,016||West of Luzon|
|Bering Sea||884,900||2,291,900||5,075||1,547||15,659||4,773||Off Buldir Island|
|Gulf of Mexico||615,000||1,592,800||4,874||1,486||12,425||3,787||Sigsbee Deep|
|Okhotsk Sea||613,800||1,589,700||2,749||838||12,001||3,658||146∞10'E; 46∞50'N|
|East China Sea||482,300||1,249,200||617||188||9,126||2,782||25∞16'N; 125∞E|
|Hudson Bay||475,800||1,232,300||420||128||600||183||Near entrance|
|Japan Sea||389,100||1,007,800||4,429||1,350||12,276||3,742||Central Basin|
|Andaman Sea||308,000||797,700||2,854||870||12,392||3,777||Off Car Nicobar Island|
|Red Sea||169,100||438,000||1,611||491||7,254||2,211||Off Port Sudan|
|Baltic Sea||163,000||422,200||180||55||1,380||421||Off Gotland|