WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
S.KAMAL HAYDER KAZMI,
Research Analyst, PAGE
Dec 28, 2009 - Jan 03, 2010
WAPDA is a government-owned public utility handling management of power and water in Pakistan, though it does not manage thermal power. WAPDA includes Tarbela and Mangla dams among its resources. In October 2007, WAPDA was separated into two distinct entities i.e. WAPDA and Pakistan Electric Power Company (PEPCO).
ELECTRICITY GENERATION BY WAPDA (JULY-MAR) (GWH)
YEAR HYDRO SHARE (%) THERMAL SHARE (%) 2007-08 21,606 33.5 42,963 66.5 2008-09 20,665 33.7 40,653 66.3
WAPDA is responsible for water and hydropower development whereas PEPCO is vested with the responsibility of thermal power generation, transmission, distribution and billing.
WAPDA also investigates, plans, and executes schemes for the generation, transmission, and distribution of power, irrigation, water supply and drainage, prevention of water logging and reclamation of waterlogged and saline lands, and flood management and inland navigation.
The power sector in Pakistan is now being regulated through NEPRA, after restructuring of WAPDA in line with decision of the GoP. NTDC/CPPA is being operated as single buyer/purchasing agency on behalf of power distributors, except KESC franchised areas.
Power sale/purchase and its price settlement are governed through power purchase agreements (PPA's) and electricity supply agreements (ESA's).
During FY 2007-08 the distribution companies have sold 62,456 million units, a decline of 106 million units over FY 2006-07. The distribution loss during the period was 19.5%.
Power transmission by NTDC, during FY 2007-08, stood at 81,633 million units, down by 1,085 million units from the previous year i.e. FY 2006-07. The transmission losses also came down to 3.4%.
GROWTH IN CONSUMERS
With the expansion of the electricity network, the numbers of consumers have increased by 7,675,000 since 1998-99. During July-march 2008-09, growth of consumers stood at 4.2% as total numbers reached 18.5 million during July- March 2008-09 as compared to 17.7 million in the same period last year.
The share of domestic consumers remained 84.9% followed by the commercial and industrial sectors having a 12.3% and a 1.4% share respectively.
CONSUMERS BY ECONOMIC GROUPS (IN '000)
YEAR DOMESTIC COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL AGRICULTURE OTHERS TOTAL 2007-08 15,026 2,214 240 243 11 17,734 2008-09 15,687 2,271 250 255 12 18,475
WATER VISION 2025
WAPDA has formulated a comprehensive $25 to 33 billion National Water Resource and Hydropower Development Programme-vision 2025. The Water Vision 2025 projects are expected to generate 16,000 MW of hydro-electricity. Other goals are to prevent water shortages, limit drought, and increase water storage for a growing population.
WAPDA'S POWER LOSSES (%) YEAR T&D LOSSES* 2001-02 23.6 2002-03 23.9 2003-04 23.5 2004-05 22.3 2005-06 21.9 2006-07 21.1 2007-08 20.92 JULY-MARCH 2007-08 20.3
Five mega hydropower projects have been announced by President of Pakistan, which are slated to be completed by 2016 with increasing generation capacity by 9,500 MW. Two projects are ready for awarding construction works whereas three projects are in the stage of feasibility studies and preparation of tender documents.
Water Vision 2025 consists of three phases. Phase I was expected to start in 1993 but was delayed. The priority of water sector projects under phase-1 of Water Vision 2025 are Gomal Dam (NWFP), Mirani Dam and Mithan kot barrage at Kachhi canal (Balochistan) raising of Mangla Dam (Azad Kashmir), Greater Thal canal phase-1 (Punjab), and Thar/Rainee canals phase-1 (Sindh).
Total cost of these Phase I projects will be $2.467 billion with a construction period of five years. Under the phase II, Hingol Dam, Balochistan Dam and Satpara Dam (Northern Areas), Chashma Right Bank canal and Khurram Tangi Dam (NWFP), phase-11 of the Greater Thal canal Akhori Dam and Sanjwal Dam (Punjab), Phase-11 of Thar/Rainee canals, Gajnai and Sehwan barrage (Sindh) will be completed in 3-6 years except Basha Dam which will take 8-10 years for its completion.
Total cost of phase-11 projects will be $8.94 billion. These 11 projects will have a storage capacity of 12.79 maf and would generate over 3362 mw electricity and irrigate 1.4 million hectares of land.
Under phase-III, Yugo Dam, Skardu Dam, Dhok Dam, Rohtas Dam, Naulang Dam, and Khadji Dam will be completed.
In Pakistan, water availability has reduced from 5260 cubic meter per capita in 1950 to present 1038 cubic meter. Any country with per capita water availability of below 1000 is globally considered as water starved country. Pakistan is fast moving towards this status. After accounting for all environmental considerations, Pakistan is still left with 18 million feet of water that goes down in the sea.
At present, WAPDA is having no problem in obtaining finances for its twenty water reservoirs and hydro-electricity projects, because each of these projects has the ability to generate enough surplus income. This is an attraction for financers.
WAPDA is concentrating on water projects only. Technical staff is the main asset of WAPDA that apart from preparing projects also oversees their implementation. Functioning of all water projects even after 40 years of completion is commendable, and manifestation of Wapda's competence.