Research Analyst
Nov 02 - 08, 2009

Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) was created in 1958 as a semiautonomous body for the purpose of coordinating and giving a unified direction to the development of schemes in water and power sectors, which were previously dealt with by the respective electricity and irrigation department of the provinces.

Since October 2007, WAPDA has been bifurcated into two distinct entities i.e. WAPDA and Pakistan Electric Power Company (PEPCO). WAPDA is responsible for water and hydropower development whereas PEPCO is vested with the responsibility of thermal power generation, transmission, distribution, and billing.

WAPDA also investigates, plans, and executes schemes for the generation, transmission and distribution of power, irrigation, water supply and drainage, prevention of water logging and reclamation of waterlogged and saline lands, flood management and inland navigation.

WAPDA has one of the largest employers of human resources in Pakistan. Over the years WAPDA has built up a reservoir of technical know-how and expertise which has made it a modern and progressive organization.


The final allocation of water sector projects/schemes (excluding IBPs) under execution of Wapda water wing against GOP was financed through Public Sector Development Programme 2007-08 which stood at Rs. 33682.530 million including foreign assistance of Rs. 65,000 million


2003-04 27,477 39.8 41,617 60.2 69,094
2004-05 25,671 34.9 47,849 65 73,520
2005-06 30,855 37.5 51,370 62.5 82,225
2006-07 31,942 36.4 55,895 63.6 87,837
2007-08 28,667 33.23 57,602 66.77 86,269
2007-08 21,606 33.5 42,963 66.5 64,569
2008-09 20,665 33.7 40,653 66.3 61,318


The authority/government of Pakistan had approved an amount of Rs. 12,534.380 million including foreign loan of Rs. 800 million for the PSDP 2007-08 for hydel generation.

Out of above allocation a sum of Rs. 350.380 million has been approved under ADP (financing by the government of Pakistan).


The power sector in Pakistan is regulated through NEPRA after restructuring of WAPDA in line with the decision of the government. NTDC/CPPA is operated as single buyer/purchasing agency on behalf of power distributors, except KESC franchised areas.

Tariff of various power service providers i.e. power generation, transmission and distribution is now determined by NEPRA. Power sale/purchase and its price settlement are governed through Power Purchase Agreements (PPA's) and Electricity Supply Agreements (ESA's).

During FY 2007-08, the distribution companies have sold 62,456 million units, declined by 106 million units over FY 2006-07. The distribution loss during the period was 19.5%.

The supply of power transmission by NTDC, during FY 2007-08, stood at 81,633 million units, down by 1,085 million units from the previous year i.e. FY 2006-07. The transmission losses had also come down to 3.4%.


WAPDA Hydel Power Stations produced 28,225 million KWh net energy in FY 2007-08, which was 33.2% of the total hydel-thermal generation mix of the power system. The upkeep of generating units was properly focused upon to ensure high availability and reliability of cheap hydropower.

However, the hydro conditions were not as favorable as in the previous years. WAPDA has now undertaken Vision-2025 Programme comprising a comprehensive integrated Water Resources and Hydro Power Development Programme, which will boost up the economy of Pakistan.

This has also revived WAPDA's primary developmental role as laid down in WAPDA's charter of duties. Studies on Dasu (4000 MW), Lawi (70 MW), Spat Gah (545 MW), Palas Valley (386 MW), Kohala (1100 MW), Keyal Khawar (122 MW), Bunji (5400 MW), Basho (28 MW), and Phandar (80 MW) hydropower projects are in progress.


To meet water demands of huge agriculture sector of Pakistan, WAPDA is working on various water sector projects which include raising of Mangla Dam (additional 2.88 MAF Storage), Gomal Zam Dam (0.892 MAF live storage), Satpara Dam (15.8 MW and 0.051 MAF live storage), and Kurram Tangi Dam (83.4 MW and 0.90 MAF live storage). Mirani Dam (0.152 MAF live storage) has been inaugurated in November 2006 and is in operation.

Moreover, Sabakzai Dam (0.0147 MAF live storage) is in operation. Rainee Canal (Phase-I), Kachhi Canal (Phase- I) and Greater Thal Canal (Phase-I) and Allai Khwar hydropower project, Khan Khwar, Duber Khwar and Jinnah hydropower project are under implementation.

WAPDA has also taken initiative on RBOD-I covering area of Shikarpur, Dadu, and Larkana in order to provide outfall facilities to the existing and proposed drainage project to improve environmental and water conditions in Manchar and Hamal Lakes, rehabilitation of existing drainage system, increasing agriculture production in an area of 542,500 acres.


To meet with the future requirements, WAPDA is working on studies of various projects namely Akhori Dam (600 MW and 6.0 MAF live storage) - Munda Dam 740 MW and 0.67 MAF live storage)-Sukleji Dam (160 KW and 34000 MAF live storage) - Nai Gaj Dam (2.3 MW and 0.130 MAF live storage), Naulong Dam (3.5 MW and 0.147 MAF live storage), Hingol Dam 9640 KW and 0.816 MAF live storage), Chashma Right Bank Canal (Lift Cum Gravity), Winder Dam, Sehwan Barrage, Ghabir Dam, Tank Zam Dam, Khadeji Dam, Daraban Dam, Darwat Dam and Papin Dam. The studies on Diamer Basha Dam and Kalabagh Dam have been completed. Process of pre-qualification of contractors for construction of Diamer Basha Dam has been initiated and the construction would start later this year.