Feb 02 - 08, 2009

The sun is the main source of tremendous powerful natural light coming to the earth. The Sun is 90.3 million miles away from the earth. Its light reaches to the land in 8 minutes and 16 seconds traveling at a speed of 1,86000 miles per second. The Sun's diameter is 1.4 million kilometers. It is 100 times greater than earth. In other words, the Sun can accommodate 1.4 million earths. The Sun provides 99.86 percent of natural light throughout the world varying from 9 hours to 15 hours daytimes demanding on the change of seasons of the countries.

Pakistan receives minimum 9 hours daylight on 22 December and maximum 15 hours daylight on 22 June of the year. The natural light is godsend to all creatures living on the earth. Without light the production of anything on the earth will be zero or nil. Therefore the life will not exist.

It is Al-Mighty Allah Who Omnipresent, Omniscient, Omnipotent has created every thing in universe on earth and seas for his living creatures. One must always be grateful to Him.

The man has to be generated artificial light for general using purposes on 24 hours basis by using different sources available on the earth. The different available sources for producing electricity vary from country to country. At present, there exist 192 countries in the world registered as UN members. The electricity need of these countries is fulfilled on the availability of natural resources. The main items required for producing electricity are natural gas; crude/furnace oil; water reservoirs, coal; fossil fuel, nuclear, wind, solar, biogas, and geothermal.

The per capita consumption of energy in Pakistan is only 14BMtu. It is high as 165BMtu in UK, 92 BMtu in Malaysia, 34 BMtu in China, 18 BMtu in India etc.

Pakistan has a total installed power generating capacity of 19,450 Megawatts (MW) from different sources i.e. Hydel, Thermal, coal, Nuclear etc. The break-up is WAPDA 11,327MW (50%), KESC 1,756 MW (11%), PAEC 462 (3%) MW, and IPPs 5,977 MW (36%). Of the total capacity 5,000 MW (about 26%) is hydro while the rest 14,522 MW is thermal.

Between 1985 and 2005, Pakistan's total installed power generating capacity increased nearly fourfold i.e. from 5229 MW to 19,522 MW and between 1991 and 2007 total consumption increased by more than 84% i.e. from 31TWh to 57 TWh. An average annual increase of 8% has been recorded. Currently there is shortfall of 4,000 MW in the demand and supply of electricity in the country and the government is expected to add about 1300 MW capacity over next few years through the private sector in order to promote sustained industrial growth and benefit the growing national economy. Presently, the share of energy consumption in the country is 23% residential, 34% industrial, 34% transportation, 3% commercial, 3% agriculture and 3% other government offices.

Pakistan has significant oil, gas, coal, mineral ore deposits as well as alternate solar and wind potential. The country has oil reserves of over 310 million barrels as of January 2006, and gas reserves of 750 BCM. The oil and gas are two major components of energy resources.

Due to its ideal geographic location, Pakistan possesses immense potential to harness unlimited solar and wind energy. During the last two decades Pakistan has developed its potential in photovoltaic (PV) technology, which is suitable for small power requirements. There is possibility to add 500 MW power through alternate energy resources in the next few years.

The majority of produced oil comes from proven reserves located in the southern half of the country. Gas production during the last five years has soared by 65% to over 3.8 BCF/day. The country's two gas distribution companies in north by SNGPL and in south by SSGPL have been investing over US $200 million a year to increase the capacity of the existing distribution network of 80,000 kilometers. However, still only 20% of the population has access to natural gas. Natural gas is found whenever oil and gas occur together. Natural gas largely contains 80% methane gas along with small quantities of ethane, propane, butane and also contains carbon dioxide, N and occasionally helium.

Gas is a prime source of energy in Pakistan as it provides 65% of the natural energy requirements. The share of gas in fuelling the economy is followed by oil which provides 29.4%. The other minor sources are hydro providing 12%, coal 5% and nuclear only 1.2 %. Gas is the prime mover of Pakistan's economy. Natural gas is piped from gas wells for use as fuels in the homes, industries, institution, and into thermal electric power stations in the different parts of the country. The biggest consumer of gas is the power sector which uses it for generating electricity throughout the country. Nearly 50% of the gas is used in the power sector. Industry uses another 20%. The next big consumer is the fertilizer industry which uses 16% as feed stock for producing urea. The domestic consumption is only 18% followed by commercial use of 2% and CNG for cars amounts 5%.

There are 173 gas fields in the country. Of them 140 are located in Sindh, 22 in Punjab, 7 in Balochistan and 4 in NWFP.

Our current gas total resource potential is 32 TCFT. Pakistan has 13,000 km of gas transmission lines and 85,000 kilometers of gas distribution lines. Gas domestic consumers are 3.8 million and gas commercial consumers are 70,000. However, still only 18% of the population has access to natural gas. Gas production has been increasing at a steady rate of 10% annum. In fact, Pakistan has the best integrated gas supply system amongst the developing countries of the world.

Pakistan is the world's third and Asia's largest consumer of CNG in the transportation industry. The commercial requirement of energy in the country has doubled over the last decade, with the demand for natural gas growing at 10% per annum. However, gas discoveries and supply are not keeping pace with the increasing demand and the requirement for imported gas has become inevitable with the expected shortfall of 700 mmcf /day by 2010. Pakistan is also emerging as the preferred transit route for energy in the region, due to its ideal geographical location at the crossroads of Central Asia and the Arabian Sea. The total oil resource potential is 27 billion barrels with crude oil refining capacity of 11.28 million tons per year. The volume of locally refined products per year is 8.7 million tons. Total annual consumption of oil is 20 millions tons and imports 25 million tons. The current production of crude oil in Pakistan is about 70,200 barrels per day.

In the present world about 40% of energy needs of developing and developed countries like USA and Western Europe are met through coal. The Thar coal field in Sindh province has huge deposit of 185 billion tons of coal and quality of its coal is superior.

Coal is a major source of electricity in the world and some of the countries use coal in significant amount for electricity production and these countries are (in %): Germany 47, USA 50, Greece 58, Czech Rep 59, India 69, Morocco 59, Kazakhstan 70, Israel 71, PR China 78, Australia 80, Poland 93, and S. Africa 93. In Pakistan, the share of coal in the energy mix is about 5% and in power generation even less than 1% despite the fact that Pakistan ranks among those countries which posses vast deposits of coal.

Pakistan has been gifted with rich coal reserves -estimated to be over 185 billion tons, having production of only 3.31 million tons and with a consumption of 4.04 million tons. This reserve could be used for production of electricity at a much cheaper cost and to overcome the power shortage that is unleashing long and dark hours of electricity load shedding and badly hurting industrial production. These resources may be used for the production of sufficient electricity for the requirement of the country.