KARACHI WATER & SEWERAGE BOARD

S.KAMAL HAYDER KAZMI,
Research Analyst
, PAGE
July 06 - 12, 2009

The Karachi Water & Sewerage Board (KW&SB) is a service based consumer oriented organization responsible for production, transmission, and distribution of potable water to the citizen of Karachi, managing sewerage system within the city to ensure hygienic environment, development of scheme to cover shortfalls in services and collection of revenues for sustained economic viability.

REVENUE SOURCES 2008-09

CURRENT RECEIPTS (RS. MILLION)
Water Charges (Bulk & Retail) 2400
Sewerage Charges (Bulk & Retail) 350
Tariff Revise 300
Other 450
Arrears From G.O.P / G.O.S 2365.8
Other Receivable 973.533
Receivable Subsidy from CDGK 3890.54
Additional Receivable Subsidy from CDGK 436.736
Subtotal 11,166.61

Over the years, the division of responsibility for production and distribution has proved barricades to better management. It was subsequently decided to form a new authority to operate an entire water supply system. Accordingly in 1981, the Karachi water management board (KWMB) was created to redress the issue. KWMB was assigned responsibility for water distribution throughout the metropolitan areas and was given enhanced powers of cost recovery.

INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER

Karachi has the country's largest industrial estate, the Sindh Industrial Trading Estate (SITE), which has an estimated 2,000 industrial units. In addition to SITE, industries also exist in Federal-B Area, North Karachi, Landhi, and Korangi. The industries include textile, chemical, tanneries etc. Under the factories act of 1934, the industries are expected to discharge only treated industrial effluents. However, because of lack of facilities and inadequate enforcement of laws, the industries have resorted to short cuts and instead of using the network after pre-treatment discharged the wastewater into the nearest channel or river. The result was that the once dry Lyari and Malir rivers have become perennial rivers carrying the domestic/industrial wastewater and serving as an open sewer passing through the heart of city.

The body load of Lyari and Malir rivers is very high from this wastewater and is to the tune of 1000 tons per day and 500 tons per day respectively. Sewage flows in Lyari river channel have been reduced tremendously during last two years due to intercepting trunk sewer laid by KW&SB in the riverbed taking sewage to Mauripur Treatment Plant (TP-3) - commissioned in Dec 1997. The sewers connected with storm water drains terminating Layri/Malir river have also been rapidly switched upon trunk sewers under Khushal Pakistan Programme.

SEWAGE TREATMENT

SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT OPTIMUM DESIGN CAPACITY (MGD) ACTUAL TREATMENT (MGD) 
Plant-I SITE 51.00 20
Plant-II Mehmoodabad 46.50 30
Plant-III Mauripur 54.00 40
TOTAL 151.50 90

To improve the environmental conditions in the city and to dilute concentration of raw sewage flowing into the sea, three Sewage Treatment Plants [STPs] are operating in city such as Sewage Treatment Plant at SITE (TP-1), Sewage Treatment Plant at Mehmoodabad (TP-2), and Sewage Treatment Plant at Mauripur (TP-3). The TP-1 and TP-2 were built in 1960 with trickling filter system of 20 mgd each. Both treatment plants were refurbished and updated to cater additional sewage load. The third sewage treatment plant was established at Mauripur and commissioned in 1998.

LAB UNIT IN KW&SB

YEAR WISE COLLECTION FROM 2000 TO 2008
(Rs. mn)

YEARS WATER SEWERAGE CONSERVANCY FIRE OTHER AT SOURCE ADJUSTMENT
2000-2001 1,900.40 87.657 87.657 16.774 23.125 -
2001-2002 1,623.83 255.393 116.634 51.681 27.669 -
2002-2003 1,685.89 204.151 147.126 63.455 14.526 62.38
2003-2004 1,684.49 251.035 187.803 94.784 14.7 197.293
2004-2005 1,972.64 237.843 188.664 92.963 33.59 442
2005-2006 1,827.64 293.093 187.844 108.577 24.294 -
2006-2007 1,750.19 417.306 246.689 124.984 239.38 -
2007-2008 2058.952 591.323 387.488 263.445 451.439 -

The Lab Unit is responsible to establish standards for bacteriological and chemical quality, monitoring and developing sampling frequencies from distribution network and testing procedures to be followed within the parameter of WHO. Lab Facilities have been provided at all water treatment plants for monitoring chemical dosing (chlorination) and maintaining quality control according to WHO guidelines. In addition, KW&SB central Lab at COD Hills Filter plants monitors the bacteriological quality of city water by collection and testing 900-1000 samples per month, from the city distribution network. The objective of the lab unit is to follow the measures of accomplishment regarding physical, chemical and bacteriological quality of potable water.

CONCLUSION

Currently, the KW&SB is facing many difficulties for continuing the city development projects. The load shedding and financial problems have caused numerous problems for the KW&SB and it is difficult for the utility to function properly. Unfortunately, the power utility is not giving any support to KW&SB. The KW&SB is in a dire need of funds without which it cannot continue providing services to public.