SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENTS OF WESTERN WORLD
July 06 - 12, 2009
There are 500 universities in 57 member countries of Organization of Islamic countries (OIC). The present day population of the Muslim world is nearly 1.5 billion. That implies one university for every three million people. According to a record of academic ranking of world's best universities, not a single university from Muslim countries was in the top 500.
The ranking further shows that Harvard University in USA leads the ranking of these 500 universities. Others in that order are also seventeen from the USA, which are: Harvard, Stanford (USA), Cambridge (UK), Berkeley, MIT, GIT & Princeton (USA), Oxford (UK), Columbia, Chicago, Yale, Cornell & San Diego (USA), Tokyo (Japan), Pennsylvania, Los Angles, San Francisco, Wisconsin, Michigan and Washington (Seattle, USA).
This ranking was based on several measures of research performances and academic quality including academic citations and research papers published in quality Journals of the World. Industrialized nations spend 2.3% of the GDP on Research and Development (R&D), whereas OIC members spend only 0.2%.
The United States alone spend 2% of GDP on R&D. The total GDP of Spain is more than collective GDP of 12 Arab oil producing countries. The combined annual GDP of Muslim countries is under $2 trillion less than that of Germany that accounts for $2.4 trillion. Hardly 16% of the Muslim population is involved in industrial production as compared to 60% of the western population.
One cannot ignore the services of western world towards the improvement of quality of human life irrespective of religions. West has served the humanity by contributing greatly to education and health services.
The journey of knowledge-based economies was started during the seventeenth century-known as age of industrial revolution and mass production in the West.
ComsTech (Pakistan) reports that scientific research in OIC countries is so poor that only 2,500 articles out of the total 2,60,000 articles published every year worldwide are of them. It means only one percent is contributed by the Muslim Ummah. In the field of science, 500 universities in Muslim countries have 500 PhDs while 3,000 alone are from UK. Today Arab world consists of 23 countries with population of about 400 million. None has a noble prizewinner in the field of science.
Steel is a symbol of industrial production. The Arab world contributes only 1.7% to global steel production, which is less than the steel production of a single South American country, Brazil. The Muslim world has only 230 scientists per million people. The USA alone has 4,000 scientists per million. Western world has very great contribution in various inventions and some important of these are: Gunpowder (UK.1245), Printing Press (Germeny,1475), Binocular (Hollnd,1595), Thermometer (Italy,1643),Typewriter (USA,1668), Electricity (USA,1729), Soap (Germany,1758), Steam Engine (UK.1769), Balloon (France,1783), Parachute (France,1797), Electric battery (Italy,1800), Paper Machine (USA,1809), Gun (USA,1811), Stethoscope (Scotland,1819), Cement (UK,1824), Electric Magnet (USA,1828), Railway Engine (UK,1829), Pistol (USA,1835), Short Hand (UK,1837), Harvester (USA,1838), Rubber (Scotland,1841), Bicycle (Scotland,1842), Lithe Machine (USA,1845), Sewing Machine (France,1850), Ice Machine (USA,1861), Burner gas (Germany,1855), Steel (UK,1856), Dynamite (Sweden,1866), Microphone (USA, 1877), Gramophone (USA,1878), Electric Bulb (USA,1879), Neel (Germany, 1880), Fountain Pen (USA,1884), Gas mantle (1885), Telephone (USA,1885), Car-petrol (USA,1886), Tyre (UK,1889), Photo-colored (France,1891), Tractor (USA,1892), Blade-Razor (USA, 1895), Diesel engine (Germany,1895), X-ray (Germany, 1895), Telegraph, (Italy,1896), Washing Machine (USA,1907), Glass (France, 1909), Mercury Bulb (USA, 1912), Bomb (USA,1916), X-ray Tube (USA,1816), Scooter (UK,1919), Gasoline (USA,1922), Loud Speaker (USA,1924), Television (Scotland,1926), Atom Bomb (USA,1929), Submarine (Holland), and Ball Point Pen (Hungary,1938).
INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES IN VARIOUS FIELDS IN THE 20TH CENTURY:
Types of blood (Australia, 1901), Aero plane (USA,1903), Vitamins (Britain,1906), Structure of atom,1911), Leprosy (France,1913), Insulin (Canada,1921), Penicillin (Scotland,1928), Radar (Britain/Germany, 1933), DDT (Switzerland, 1939), Surface to Surface Missile (Germany, 1942), Dialysis Machine (Germany,1943), Microwave Cooking (USA,1946), Polaroid Camera (USA,1947), Breaking Sound Barrier (USA, 1947), Polio Vaccine (USA,1952), Structure of DNA (USA,1953), Microchip (USA, 1959), Laser (USA, 1960), Tranquilizer Valium (USA,1963), First successful Coronary -Artery By Pass Operation (USA,1964), Heart Transplant (S.Africa,1967), Walk on Moon (USA,1969), CT-Scan (Britain, 1971), Use of Balloon Angiography (1977), 1st Test Tube Baby (Britain,1978), Eradication of Smallpox (WHO,1988), Finding of Titanic (France,1984), Genetic Fingerprinting (Britain,1984), and Cloning of Sheep Dolly (Scotland,1996).
It must be noted that these valuable inventions and discoveries of the western world are presently used for human benefits in all the countries of the world and the people are getting much benefits by their uses in the hospitals and other institutes.
Western scientists have swept the Noble Prize Awards, which was established in 1901 in the memory of Alfred Noble of Sweden who invented Dynamite. The prize includes $1.4 million cash, a gold medal, and a diploma. The prize ceremony is held on 9th December every year. The awarded fields are Physics, Chemistry, Literature, Peace, and Medicine & Physiology. There was a report that up to 2006, 758 individuals and 18 organizations were awarded Noble Prize Award on various fields.
Some of the countries that have secured awards are USA (164), UK (111), Germany (94), France (44), Switzerland (25), Russia (21), Canada (18), China (6), Japan (12), Isreal (8), India (7), Egypt (4), Pakistan (1), Bangladesh (1), Turkey (1), Iran (1), Palestine (1), and Jewish Origin Nationals (53). Linus Pauling was the youngest person (25yrs) and Raymond Davis Jr. the oldest person awarded in Physics in 2002 at the age of 88 years. Woman have bagged 12 prizes in different fields.
Any learned scientist having a real honesty, zeal and enthusiasm, devotion to his research work, fear of Allah, punctuality of time, simple living, manners and etiquettes, writing power, full knowledge of research work, no greed for money, peace and tranquility, etc. can become noble prizewinner, irrespective of his/her religion or country of origin.