ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SCENARIO OF OIC MEMBERS
Aug 11 - 17, 2008
The Organization of Islamic Countries is a body of 57 Muslim countries, and these are: Albania, Afghanistan, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bahrain, Benin, Bosnia Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Brunei Darussalam, Cameroon, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Malaysia, Mauritania, Mozambique, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Togo, Tango, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, Uzbekistan, Yemen AR, Yemen PDR and a few more.
There are at present nearly 1.5 billion people spreading over the continents of Asia, Africa, Europe and Latin America. A large part of world's Muslim population lives in countries where Muslims are not in the majority. Muslims are big minority in China, India, United States, Britain and Canada, and those populations cover thirty five percent of the world's Muslim population. Among these OIC Muslim states, some named as Islamic Republics, some Peoples Republics, also Republic, Saudi Arabia as Kingdom, Qatar as State of Qatar, Indonesia as Republic and Turkey & Iraq as Seculars.
More than one-third countries of the world belong to Muslim world. Muslim countries represent 21 percent world's population and 23 per cent surface area of the world. God has also blessed Muslim countries with huge reserves of natural resources. It produces 50 percent of the oil and accounts for 40 percent of world export of raw materials. Out of top 12 countries carrying oil reserves, seven are the Muslim countries. Saudi Arabia with production of 8.5 million barrel per day is the largest oil producing country of the world while Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, UAE, Libya and Nigeria are the other leading oil producing countries. The combined share of these seven Muslim states accounts for more than 40% of the total production of oil. Besides the huge oil reserves, God has also endowed us with 60% of the total reserves of the natural gas of the world. Similarly Indonesia and Malaysia are the world's second and third largest producers of natural rubber sharing 40% of the total rubber production of the world. Malaysia also produces 51% of the palm oil of the world. Central Asian countries are also blessed with huge reserves of oil and gas. Pakistan exports nearly 10 billion of textile products. Out of these members countries, only Malaysia and Saudi Arabia fall in the list of top 25 trading nations of the world and Malaysia export is over $100 billion and that of Saudi Arabia $ 90 billion and possesses 25th pace in the world.
Despite of this population and surface area, the share of Muslim world is less than 5 per cent in the "World Domestic Product". It is surprising that alone India's GDP in term of purchasing power parity is more than the aggregate GDP of entire Muslim world. Despite of the resource-based trading such as oil, cotton, textile, gas and other primary goods- Muslim economies cannot get even 7 per cent share in the global trade activities. On account of economic disparity per capita income in member countries varies. Oil exporting nations of Gulf & Arabia, South Eat Asia States (Indonesia and Malaysia) and Turkey enjoy per capita income of more than $3000. According to the estimated statics, total size of OIC countries GDP was $ 1.46 trillion, which is three times lesser than that of a single European nation-France.
A recent report says that less than 3% students in the age group of 17-24 years are enrolled in a college or a university in Pakistan. There figure is more or less true for 57 predominantly Muslim countries where negligence in learning, science and technology have led to a collective political turmoil, inefficiency in planning, utilization of resources, lack of coordination and economic decline. The Muslim world contribution in the R&D is very poor. Only 2% of the technicians are involved in research activities in Muslim world.
There are 500 universities in these Muslim countries, that is one university for every 3 million people. The present population of the Muslim world is nearly 1.5 billion. In 2004, Shanghai's Jiao Tong University published record-Academic ranking of world's universities, and not a single university from Muslim countries was in the top 500. The ranking shows that Harvard University in USA leads the ranking of these 500 universities. Others in that orders are seventeen from the USA & three from other countries and these are: Harvard, Stanford (USA), Cambridge (UK), Berkeley, MIT, GIT & Princeton (USA), Oxford (UK), Columbia, Chicago, Yale, Cornell & San Diego (USA), Tokyo (Japan), Pennsylvania, Los Angles, San Francisco, Wisconsin, Michigan and Washington (Seattle, USA). This ranking was based on several measures of research performance, academic quality including academic citations, research papers published in quality Journals as assessed by the Shanghai Jiao Tong University. In the industrialized nations they spent 2.3% of the GDP on R&D, whereas in 57 Muslim countries, they spent only 0.2%. USA alone spent 2% on R&D. The total GDP of Spain is more than all the Arab oil producing countries. Hardly 16% of the Muslim population is involved in industrial production as compared to 60% of the western population.
It has been reported that scientific research in Muslim countries is so poor that only 2,500 articles out of the total 2,60,000 articles are published every year. It means only 1% is contributed by Muslim world. In science from 500 universities in Muslim countries PhD holders are less than 500 while 3,000 alone are from UK. Today Arab world consists of 23 countries with population of 400 million. None has a noble prize winner in the field of Science. The combined annual GDP of Muslim countries is under $2 trillion less than that of Germany $2.4 trillion. Steel is a symbol of industrial production. Arab world contributes only 1.7% to global steel production, which is less than the steel production of a single South American country, Brazil. The Muslim world has only 230 scientists per million people. The USA alone has 4,000 scientists per million.
Conclusion: There is an urgent need to develop meaningful and true cooperation among the members states for boosting up all sorts of developmental affairs of these countries. Such linkages are: establishment of joint business councils, promotion of trades through fairs and exhibition, tourism development agencies, improvement in IT and communication, joints ventures and investments. There are others field for exploration.