FOOD AND AGRICULTURE

S.KAMAL HAYDER KAZMI,
Research Analyst
, PAGE
June 30 - July 06, 2008

Agriculture is supposed to be the backbone of Pakistan's economy in the backdrop of huge and rich lands and water resources. The crop sector accounts for about 65% of agriculture share in the GDP. Pakistan stands as an ideal place for crop, animal, forestry and fish production. Crop sector tops with accounts of 69% in agriculture's GDP, while livestock accounts for 30%. Forestry and fisheries make up less than 2% of the total GDP. There are two growing seasons of crops in Pakistan: Kharif and Rabi. The Ministry of Food, Agriculture & Livestock is mainly responsible for policy formulation, economic coordination and planning in respect of food grain, agricultural livestock.

LAND UTILIZATION IN PAKISTAN:
(AREA IN MILLION HECTARES)

YEAR/
PROVINCE

G.A

TAR COL
(4+5+
6+7)

F.A

NOT AVAIL-
ABLE FOR CULTI-
VATION

CW

CULTI-
VATED AREA COL.
(8+9)

CURRENT FALLOW

NET AREA SOWN

AREA SOWN MORE THAN ONCE

TCA COL.
(9+10)

A.L
(13+4)

AL
(6+7)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

2004-05

Total

79.61

57.07

4.02

22.88

8.11

22.06

6.68

15.38

7.52

22.90

34.19

30.17

Punjab

20.63

17.52

0.49

2.98

1.54

12.51

1.91

10.60

6.07

16.67

14.54

14.05

Sindh

14.09

14.10

0.84

6.16

1.35

5.75

3.3

2.45

0.84

3.29

7.94

7.10

NWFP

10.17

8.34

1.33

3.91

1.22

1.88

0.55

1.33

0.57

1.90

4.43

3.10

Balochistan

34.72

17.11

1.36

9.83

4.00

1.92

0.92

1.00

0.04

1.04

7.28

5.92

2005-06

Total

79.61

57.22

4.03

22.87

8.22

22.10

6.71

15.39

7.73

23.12

34.35

30.32

Punjab

20.63

17.66

0.50

2.97

1.63

12.56

2.15

10.41

6.27

16.68

14.69

14.19

Sindh

14.09

14.10

0.84

6.17

1.37

5.72

3.08

2.64

0.87

3.51

7.93

7.09

NWFP

10.17

8.34

1.33

3.90

1.22

1.89

0.57

1.32

0.52

1.84

4.44

3.11

Balochistan

34.72

17.12

1.36

9.83

4.00

1.93

0.91

1.02

0.07

1.09

7.29

5.93

2006-07

Total (P)

79.61

57.23

4.22

22.66

8.33

22.02

6.43

15.59

7.91

23.50

34.57

30.35

Punjab(R)

20.63

17.66

0.50

2.97

1.63

12.56

2.15

10.41

6.27

16.68

14.69

14.19

Sindh

14.09

14.08

1.03

5.96

1.49

5.60

2.86

2.74

0.98

3.72

8.12

7.09

NWFP

10.17

8.34

1.33

3.90

1.21

1.90

0.56

1.34

0.55

1.89

4.44

3.11

Balochistan

34.72

17.15

1.36

9.83

4.00

1.96

0.86

1.10

0.11

1.21

7.32

5.96

P = Provisional
R =Repeated Source: Provincial Agriculture Departments.

GA = Geographical Area
FA= Forest Area
TAR=Total Area Reported
AL= Agricultural Land
TCA= Total Cropped Area
CW= Culturable Waste
AL= Arable Land

COTTON:

Pakistan is the fifth largest producer of cotton in the world as well as the third largest exporter of raw cotton Yarn. Cotton production supports Pakistan's industrial sector. Pakistan exports different types of cotton goods like, Cotton Bags, Cotton Fabrics and Cotton Yarn. Recently, cotton price have been increased by Rs 50 per mound. In FY05-06, cotton was grown over 7.65m acres compared to 7.25m acres in FY02-03. Pakistan has also been losing some 10-15% value of its cotton due to poor quality. Cotton faces tough competition from other crops due to which there is constraint in bringing more area under this crop. However, in order to expend the area, there are possibilities of cotton cultivation in various districts especially in Balochistan.

EXPORT RECEIPTS BY COMMODITY:
(THOUSAND US DOLLAR)

 

May 
(P)

April (R)

May

July - May

July - June

Commodity

2008

2008

2007

2007-08 (P)

2006-07

2006-07

2005-06

Rice

207,947

188,286

111,888

1,341,959

1,038,460

1,131,565

1,032,773

Wheat Unmilled

0

0

633

1,030

1,149

4,046

0

Sugar

30,727

10,567

0

55,518

7

7

20,230

Raw Cotton

10,158

12,494

5,595

79,526

70,388

75,640

99,672

Total Export Receipts through banks

1,747,664

1,703,576

1,502,125

16,659,904

14,791,324

16,309,706

15,310,534

P: Provisional, R: Revised.

RICE:

Pakistan is one of the main producers of the world's finest long grained aromatic Basmati rice. Basmati rice takes birth in the most fertile valleys and plains of Pakistan. Super Kernel, Basmati Rice 385, Brown Rice and Parboiled Rice are the special types and forms of Rice in Pakistan. The Trading Corporation of Pakistan (TCP) plays a limited role in the rice trade by facilitating government-to-government exports through the private sector. The major destinations for Basmati rice exports are United Arab Emirates, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, United Kingdom, Bahrain, and Kuwait. Pakistan had gained more exports share with 2.25m metric tons projected at the end of 2001.

IMPORT PAYMENTS BY COMMODITY:
(THOUSAND US $)

 

MAY (P)

APRIL (R)

MAY

JULY - MAY

JULY - JUNE

COMMODITY

2008

2008

2007

2007-08 (P)

2006-07

2006-07

2005-06

Wheat Unmilled

0

134,727

14

570,829

14

14

94,108

.Sugar

861

879

945

11,414

310,574

312,878

546,704

.Raw Cotton

56,155

105,537

63,588

1,058,492

571,406

647,187

427,586

Total Import Payments Banks (cif)

3,398,702

3,295,353

2,224,024

30,917,627

23,994,259

26,364,015

24,192,440

Import Payments Banks (fob) (I-II)

3,126,806

3,031,725

2,046,102

28,444,217

22,074,718

24,254,893

22,257,044

P: Provisional, R: Revised.

SUGARCANE:

In Pakistan, Sugarcane is mostly grown for sugar and sugary production. It also forms essential items for industries like sugar, chip board, paper, barrages, confectionery, and uses in chemicals, plastics, paints, synthetics, fiber, insecticides and detergents. Sugarcane production in the country has increased over time. The average sugarcane production in the country required static between 45-50 tons/ha, which is extremely low compared to the cane production by other countries. Pakistan occupies an important position in cane producing world. It ranks at the fifth position in cane acreage and production and almost 15th position in sugar production.

WHEAT:

In Pakistan, there are three kinds of wheat cultivars. These are the long duration, the medium and short duration varieties. The main factors which largely contribute towards low wheat yields are the optimum time of sowing, prevalence of high intensity of weeds and imbalance use of fertilizer. The low level of organic matter is also important for holding the yield. Most of the canals in southern Punjab are closed nowadays. Therefore, the farmers are facing lots of difficulties. On the other hand, due to continuous outage of electricity, it becomes almost impossible to get water through tube wells.

CONCLUSION:

No doubt, if we want to develop our country we must develop our both industrial as well as agriculture sectors. Govt should solve the problems of farmers and provide facilities to them in order to have better production because it directly affects the economy of Pakistan.