OIL PALM CULTIVATION IN THE COUNTRY
May 26 - June 01, 2008
Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is an important plant for obtaining edible oil and other materials. The crop grows in tropical areas as it needs sunshine and rainfall. Suitable conditions for its cultivation are 10-15 degrees, north and south of the Equator, The tree grows up to 50 feet in high rainfall areas. It produces large primate leaves. Quality seeds are suitable for good produce. It is a native plant of coastal belt of West Africa and requires spacing of 25 feet. It is being cultivated in many parts but Malaysia is the main exporter of palm oil to the world. Cultivation of oil palm in Pakistan can not only beautify the coastal areas but will also minimize environmental pollution along with reducing considerably the edible oil import bill .Cultivation of oil palm in Pakistan can not only beautify the coastal areas but will also minimize environmental pollution along with reducing considerably the edible oil import bill. There exist good prospects for its cultivation in the coastal belt of Sindh and Balochistan where climatic conditions are favorable, though there is lack of water and extreme heat with monsoons least affecting the area. The annual rainfall is as low as 25 mm to 50 mm. There are plans to provide incentives to people living along the coast from Karachi to Gwadar for oil palm cultivation. The 750 km belt lies between 62 and 68 of longitude and 24 oN and 26 oN latitude.
The mean maximum temperature ranges between 32oC to 42oC with high humidity. The sea breeze in summer moderates the temperatures near the coast. It has been reported that these areas are suitable for cultivation of oil palm. The country spends more than $800 million on edible oil imports annually. It has been reported that more than 8,000 acres of land in Sindh and nearly the same size along the coastal areas of Balochistan would be brought under oil palm cultivation in the near future. The country imports seedlings for which the Pakistan Oilseed Development Board (PODB) is actively working towards achieving the goal. The plant starts to bear fruit within 2-3 years with an economic life span of about 25 years. Oil palm is the most productive crop with an annual yield of about five tons of crude palm oil/ha. It is reported that after soybean, palm oil is the second major oil produced in the world. Currently, worldwide production is nearly 22 million tons. Major palm oil producing countries are Malaysia, Indonesia, Nigeria, the Ivory Coast and Colombia. Malaysia has a unique position as it meets almost 50 per cent of the world palm oil needs and exports nearly 80 per cent of the total world trade of palm and palm kernel oils, according to figures estimated for 2004.
Malaysia has the highest yield per hectare and possesses the most modern oil palm nurseries infrastructure such as the mills, refineries, storage tanks along with high safety channels with a total area of about 3791x103 hectares. Indonesia is the second highest producing country. The world palm oil consumption in 2003 was 27.i million tons and the projected yield for 2005 is estimated at 30.9 million tons. The per capita consumption in 2004 for the US was 50 kg, Europe 47 kg, Japan 21 kg, China 17 kg, Bangladesh 6.7 kg, India 12 kg, Pakistan 11 kg, and world average at 18.7 kg.
Palm oil substitutes about 22 per cent of global demand for oil and fats and 49 per cent of oil export. Palm oil is a vegetable oil and does not contain cholesterol with saturated cholesterol less than that of the coconut. It is consumed in cooking, margarines and shortening, and as an ingredient in fat blends and food products like bakery and confectionery, ice-creams and chocolates. It should be classified as both saturated and unsaturated fat. The saturated fatty acids are made up of 44 per cent palmatic acid and five per cent stearic acid.
The unsaturated fatty acids consist of 39 per cent oleic acid 10 per cent linoleic acid. A number of studies have reported that palm oil diets reduce blood cholesterol from 7 to 38 per cent. The vitamin E, particularly the tocotrienols present in it suppresses the synthesis of cholesterol in liver. As a consequence tocotrienols lower the cholesterol. Tocotrienols exhibit anti-cancer properties. The oil prevents formation of thrombus in blood vessels. Vitamin E inhibits platlets from sticking to each other. It showed that a palm oil diet either increases production of a hormone that prevents blood-clotting or decreases the formation of a blood-clotting hormone. Crude palm oil is one of the richest natural sources of carotenoids with concentration of 500-700ppm. The beneficial effects of carotenes on cancer and other chronic diseases have been demonstrated in studies and clinical trials. No other vegetable oil contains carotenoids in such quantities. This oil lowers blood cholesterol and bad LDL cholesterol and increases the good HDL-cholesterol and Apo A-l levels. It is stable and versatile even without hydrogenation.
Palm oil is also used in soaps, candles, detergents, lubricants, fuel, caked residue, cosmetics, and other personal-care products. It is a rich source of vitamin E and B - carotene. Pakistan is one of the biggest consumers of palm oil besides China, India, Japan, Europe and the Middle East countries. Since the evolution of edible oil industry, palm oil has played the role of lifeblood for this sector. Despite Pakistan being an agricultural country, we face chronic shortage of it. The climate, eating habits, logistics, economy and others make palm oil the most preferential choice for Pakistan industry. Every good quality Banaspati contains palm oil. Besides being largely used for edible purposes, its by-products are used for soap making. The major oilseeds produced are cottonseed, rapeseed and sunflower. Linseed, groundnut and sesame are butter fat.
For the promotion of oil palm cultivation, the following points should be taken into consideration: Research station should be established at Karachi; oil palm seedlings should be provided free of cost; arrangement should be made for raising of seedlings; marketing channels for growers should lie set up so that when farmers start planting oil palm along the coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan they should not face crop disposal problem; irrigation facility through sweet water should be provided; training of required manpower involved in nurseries and plantation may be arranged from any oil palm producing country; mills for the extraction should be planned.
Economic Importance: Oil palm is a cash crop, which provides food, fibre and oil. Each hectare under oil palm yields ten times more oil than most other oil crops and the income exceeds expenditure when both inter-cropping and oilpalm plantation is done simultaneously. Moreover, during the seven to eight year period required for the maturity of the oil palm tree, income can be generated through inter-cropping of banana, papaya, fodder and vegetables between two rows of plants. In addition to foreign exchange savings, other likely socio-economic benefits include self-sufficiency in edible oils or at least moving in that direction, increase in industrialization and income of growers, round-the-year utilization of rural manpower, environmental upgradation and above all, poverty reduction.
Plantation of oil palm, on experimental basis, was initiated in Pakistan's coastal region in the late 70s when seed imported from Sri Lank, Indonesia and Malaysia was planted there. The success of the results led the government to motivate farmers to undertake plantation of oil palm, which is a primary source for vegetable oil and is mainly used in cooking and making margarine, confectionery, non-dairy products and soap. The byproducts of the plant are used in manufacturing rugs, rope, brooms and so on. Rich returns have attracted farmers, both in Sindh and Balochistan, to the cultivation of the plant. In addition to a public sector 360-acre farm in Sindh, oilpalm has already been planted over 2,200 acres in the private sector in both the provinces. Now, an oil extraction mill is also being set-up in Sindh to extract oil form oilpalm trees. Oil palm is a perennial crop that has an economic life span of about 30 years. It needs fresh water for irrigation and grows to a height of 30-meter (100 feet). It is a unique crop in that all of its parts can be used. Its fruits yield two types of oils, palm oil from the mescarp and palm kernel oil from the seed or kernel, both of which have different physical and chemical properties.
Besides the fruit itself, the terminal bud, called the palm cabbage, and young stems are edible and in some areas considered a delicacy. It also holds tremendous business opportunities in the value added downstream oleochemical industry. Generally, palm oil mills use fibre and shell as fuel to generate steam and electricity to meet their energy demands. Palm-based fibrous materials are suitable for the manufacture of a broad range of products, including medium density fiber board, pulp and paper, furniture, cushions and mattresses.
Despite efforts spanning over a decade to increase domestic production, Pakistan has, however, not been able to reduce the percentage of domestic production of edible oils to the imported oils from 30 to 70, primarily due to constant increase in population and smuggling of Pakistan produced vegetable ghee to some neighboring countries.