SIXTY YEARS OF PAKISTAN AND ITS ACHIEVEMENTS
DR.S.M.ALAM, A.H.SHAIKH & M.A KHAN
Mar 24 - 30, 2008
The Islamic Republic of Pakistan which got independence on 14th August, 1947 lies between 23 and 37 North Latitude and 62 and 75 East Longitude. At present, it has population of over 165 million, GNP of US$136.6 billion, per capita income: US$ 925 or Rs.55, 837, exports: 15.47 billion US dollar ( Items: cotton & cotton products, Rice, textile goods, leather items, carpets, sport goods, fruits ,handicrafts, sea food etc.), Imports: 30.59 billion US $ ( Petroleum & its products, Edible oil, Industrial Equipment, Vehicles, Iron ore, Fertilizers, Tea, Insecticides, paper & paper board, Medical products, Vehicles, Iron and steel), Labor Force: 43.38 million engaged in Agriculture: 18.91 million force ( i.e. 43 %), Workers Remittances: 6.46 billion US$, Population living below poverty line: 33.9%, Trade deficits: 12.12 billion US$, Inflation rate : 11.25 %, External debts: 42.88 billion US $, GDP Growth Rate: 8.4%, Monetary Assets: 9.9%, Foreign Exchange Reserves:14.14 billion US $, FDI over 7 billion US$.
Other main features of the country are as follows. Languages: Urdu (National language), English (Official) and more other languages include Sindhi, Punjabi, Balochi, Pashto, Sarrikin and others, Literacy rate: 45.7%, Religious Heritage: The Indus Valley Civilization (Mahenjadro), Harappan Civilization (Sahiwal), Gandhara, Taxila, Sikh Gurdwara known as Panja Sahib at Hasan Abdal, Katasraj Temple at Chakwal and Sadh Belo Island at Sukkur., National flower: Jasmine, Flora: Pine, Oak, Polar, Deodar, Maple, Mulberry, Fauna: The Pheasant., Leopard, Deer, Ibex, Chinkara, Black Buk, Neelgai, Markor, Marco polo, Sheep, Green turtles, River and sea fish, Crocodile , Water fowls.
Geographical Area: 79.61 million hectares, Boundary of Pakistan: North :China (Sinkiang), North West - Afghanistan and Iran, East - India, South - Arabian Sea Length from North to South: About 1400 kilometers, Width from East to West: About 500 Kilometers
Climate: The hot summer months extend from April to October and the winter months are effective from November to March.
PHYSICAL FEATURES OF PAKISTAN AND AGRICULTURE:
Most of the areas in the Punjab and Sindh provinces are fertile plains formed by the River Indus where agriculture is of great importance. Pakistan is known for its excellent network of canals and rich agricultural lands, with three major dams/ reservoirs (Tarbela, Mangla and Chashma), 19 barrages, 12 huge interlink canals, 63,200 kilometers canalís length, 1.6 million km of water courses. The system is supported by 48 MAF of groundwater water from nearly 750,000 tube wells However, irrigation water- both quantity and quality- is one of the factors limiting crop productivity. The Northern Regions of Pakistan is famous for its high Mountain ranges with the icy peaks of the Himalaya and Karakoram and Hindu Kush mountains. There are about 108 peaks above 6,000 meters (23,000 ft) high that are covered in snow and glaciers. The five of the mountains in Pakistan (including K-2 and Nanga Parbat) are over 8,000 meters (26,000ft) above the sea level, the second highest peak in the world. The South Western part of the country is a plateau with an average height of about 609.60 meters above the sea level. The Province of NWFP comprises of both hilly areas and fertile valleys. Balochistan, the biggest province (43%) is mainly an arid region with dry, hilly deserts with promise of mineral wealth and deposits.
Cropping seasons (two): Rabi crops ñ Wheat, Gram, Tobacco, Rape seed, Mustard, Pulses etc. Sowing start from October to January and harvested between April to June: Kharif crops ñ Rice, Cotton, Maize, Sugarcane. Sowing start in April to September and harvested in October to March, Total cropped areas: 22.51 million hectares, Forest area: 4.04 million hectares: Production of Food Crops (000tons)=30,395 (the share of food grain 54%), Production of Cash crops (000 tons)= 47,185 (Cotton &Sugarcane20%)
Production of Pulses (000tons)=685 (Pulses 6%) and other crops 17%)
Production of Edible oilseeds (000tons)=5063. Areas utilized by different crops: Wheat (36.3%), Paddy (9.5%), Sugarcane (4.5%0, Pulses (6.2%), Maize (4.2%). Fruits/Vegetable (4.5%) and other crops (20.8%).
Edible Oil/Ghee: No. of Units: 155, Consumption (000M.tons) 2,100. Local production (000M.tons):740, Imports (000M.tons):1,360, Import Bill (Rs in Million): 37,917. Per capita consumption: 14kg
Production of all types of Fruits: (000 tons): 4.138
Famous mountain Peaks K-2 (Mt Godwin Austin) 28,250 ft/8611m (2nd in World) Nanga Parbat:26,660ft./8126m (8thin World), Gasherbrum-1:26,470ft./8068m (11th in World), Famous Mountain Passes: The Khyber pass, The Kurrum pass, The Tochi pass, The Gomal pass, The Bolan pass, The Lowari pass, The Khunjrab pass Rivers: The Indus2896 km, Jhelum 825 km, Chenab 1242 km, Ravi 901 km, Sutlej 1551 km and Beas 398 km Famous Glaciers (length): Siachin 75 km, Batura 55 km and Baltoro 62 km
Deserts: Thar in Sindh, Cholistan and Thal in Punjab, and Kharan and Chagi in Balochistan
Lakes: Mancher (Sindh), Keenjar (Sindh), Hanna (Balochistan), Saif- ul-Maluk (NWFP), Satpara (and Kachura N.areas)
Major Dams: Mangla Dam (Punjab), Tarbela and Warsak Dam (NWFP)
Popular games: Cricket, Hockey, Football
Touristsí sites: Murree, Quetta, Hunza, Ziarat, Swat, Besham, Barseem, Khagan. Chitral, Gilgit, Rama Lake, Sust, Gupis, Phandar, Skardu, Astak, Satpara, Booni, Bamburet Kalash, Mastuj, Saidu Sharif, Miandam, Kalm, Malam Jabba, Taxila, Moenjoadro etc.
Seaport: Karachi, Port Qasim, Ghwadar, Pisni etc
PIA Air fleet: 43
Shipping Vessels: 15
Primary Schools 150,963 Middle Schools 28,176 High Schools 16,059 Vocational Inst. 647,000 Arts & Science Colleges 925 Professional Colleges 347 Universities 35 Private Universities 20
Hospitals 906 Dispensaries 4,554 Rural Health Centre 5,669 Maternity Homes 907 Tuberculosis Centre 289 Beds 98,684 Doctors (Registered) 108,062 Dentist (Registered) 5,530 Nurses 46,331
Cotton Yarns 1,456 (MLN Kg) Cotton Cloths 485 (MLN Sqm) Vegetable Ghee & Cooking Oil (160 Units) 645,000 tons Fertilizers (10 Units) Nitrogenous 2,945 (000 tons) Phosphates 125(000 tons) Urea 3367 (000 tons) Cement (29 Units) 9272 (000 tons) Sugar (77 mills ) 33,747 (000 tons) Jeeps/Cars 28,315 (000 Nos.) Tractors 16,997 (000 Nos.) Trucks 755 (000 Nos.) Buses 815 (000 Nos.) LCVS 6,211 (000 Nos.) Motorcycles 69 (000 Nos.) Bicycles 409 (000 Nos.) Automobiles units 64 Textile Mills 445 (Nos.)
Industry : Textiles, Cement, Fertilizer, Steel, sugar, electric goods , Shipbuilding, glass, tiles, marbles, gems stones, Leather, Plastic, Fertilizers, rubber, Automobile, etc.
Power: Pakistan has a total installed generating capacity from the different sources i.e. Hydel, Oil, Gas, Thermal, Coal and Nuclear is 19,522 MW. (June-2007). The break-up is: Wapda 11,327 MW, KESC 1,756 MW, PAEC 462 MW, and IPPs 5,977 MW. Of the total capacity, 5000 MW (about 26 per cent) is hydro while the rest 14,522 MW is thermal.
Energy (major sources): Oil, gas, coal, hydel. Thermal, Nuclear, liquid petroleum, gas and to some extent wind and solar Per capita consumption of Electricity: 14 mmbtu or 342 kwh
Power Generation Hydro 7,726 MW
Thermal 11,290 MW Nuclear 462 MW Private Producers 3,771 MW KESC 1,756 MW
Oil -Total Resource Potential 28 Billion Barrels Oil-Consumption 18.02 million tones/year Oil-Imports 15.92 million tones/year Production of oil 66,096 barrels per day Gas-Reserve potential 32.4 TCF Gas-Production 3,509 MMCF/day Gas-Demand 3.349 MMCF/day Distribution Network 9,063 Km Domestic Consumers 3.7 million Commercial Consumers 67,942 Km CNG Fuel Consumers Over 1.6 million CNG Stations Over 17,000 Coal Reserves 185 billion tons Coal Produced 3300 Million tons Production of Crude Oil 70,000 Barrel/Daily Telecommunications Post Offices 13,419 Telegraph Offices 427 No. of Telephones 5.27 million Telephone Exchanges 2,446 Public Call Offices 190,867 Govt. PTV and Private TVs In big Cities No. of TV Sets 5,800,000 Total length of roads 328,206 km Pak. Rail network 8,775 km Railway station 781 Mobiles Over 76.6 million Internet users Over 3.5 million PCOs 387,490 Mobile towers 17.779 No of refineries 7
Print Media - Dailies: 424, Weeklies: 714, Forth Nightlies: 107, Private TV channels more than 20 Viewer ship: 135 million, Radio Stations Total 23, Home services in 20 languages, External service over 70 countries in 15 languages.