JOURNEY OF MICROSOFT FROM DOS TO WINDOWS (PART-II)

NAVEED RAFIQ
Feb 19 - 25, 2007

LINUX

A free and open-source operating system, first developed and introduced in 1991 by Linus Torvalds and his friends and then further elaborated by a number of developers throughout the world. The Linux kernel runs on numerous different platforms including the Intel and Alpha platform.

It is a freely available multitasking and multiuser operating system. From the outset, Linux was placed under General Public License (GPL). The system can be distributed, used and expanded free of charge. In this way, developers have access to all the source codes, thus being able to integrate new functions easily or to find and eliminate programming bugs quickly. Thereby drivers for new adapters (SCSI controller, graphics cards, etc.) can be integrated very rapidly.

All the necessary components for Linux can be downloaded free of charge from the Internet. This means that an individual operating system can be assembled for almost nothing. An alternative is to use a so-called Distribution, offered by various companies and including a wide range of applications and installation programs that significantly simplify the installation of Linux.

Presently, Linux is successfully being used by several millions of users worldwide. The composition of user groups varies from private users, training companies, universities, research centers right through to commercial users and companies, who view Linux as a real alternative to other operating systems.

LINUX VS. WINDOWS

Users who are considering making a change from Windows to Linux or Linux to Windows commonly want to know the advantages and disadvantages of each of the operating systems. Below is a chart to help illustrate the major advantages and disadvantages of each of these Operating Systems.

TOPIC

LINUX

WINDOWS

Price

The majority of Linux variants are available for free or at a much lower price than Microsoft Windows.

Microsoft Windows can run between $50.00 - $150.00 US dollars per each license copy.

Ease

Although the majority Linux variants have improved dramatically in ease of use, Windows is still much easier to use for new computer users.

Microsoft has made several advancements and changes that have made it a much easier to use Operating System, and although arguably it may not be the easiest Operating System, it is still Easier than Linux.

Reliability

The majority of Linux variants and versions are notoriously reliable and can often run for months and years without needing to be rebooted.

Although Microsoft Windows has made great improvements in reliability over the last few versions of Windows, it still cannot match the reliability of Linux.

Software

Linux has a large variety of available software programs, utilities, and games. However, Windows has a much larger selection of available software.

Because of the large amount of Microsoft Windows users, there is a much larger selection of available software programs, utilities, and games for Windows.

Software Cost

Many of the available software programs, utilities, and games available on Linux are freeware and/or open source. Even such complex programs such as Gimp, OpenOffice, StarOffice, and wine are available for free or at a low cost.

Although Windows does have software programs, utilities, and games for free, the majority of the programs will cost anywhere between $20.00 - $200.00+ US dollars per copy.

Hardware

Linux companies and hardware manufacturers have made great advancements in hardware support for Linux and today Linux will support most hardware devices. However, many companies still do not offer drivers or support for their hardware in Linux.

Because of the amount of Microsoft Windows users and the broader driver support, Windows has a much larger support for hardware devices and a good majority of hardware manufacturers will support their products in Microsoft Windows.

Security

Linux is and has always been a very secure Operating System. Although it still can be attacked when compared to Windows, it much more secure.

Although Microsoft has made great improvements over the years with security on their Operating System, their Operating System continues to be the most vulnerable to viruses and other attacks.

Open Source

Many of the Linux variants and many Linux programs are open source and enable users to customize or modify the code however they wish to.

Microsoft Windows is not open source and the majority of Windows programs are not open source.

Support

Although it may be more difficult to find users familiar with all Linux variants, there are vast amounts of available online documentation and help, available books, and support available for Linux.

Microsoft Windows includes its own help section, has vast amount of available online documentation and help, as well as books on Each of the versions of Windows.

MICROSOFT VISTA

Microsoft Windows Vista is an upgrade to Microsoft Windows XP and Windows 2000 users. Windows Vista contains a dramatic new look for users used to previous versions of Microsoft Windows that has been designed to help create an overall better experience.

Some of the key new features of Window Vista Include:

Windows Aero (Authentic, Energetic, Reflective, and Open), a completely new GUI and unlike any previous version of Windows.

* Basic file backup and restore.

* Improved DVD support with the ability to easily create custom DVD movies.

* Easy transfer, a feature that allows you to easily transfer files from an older computer to the new computer.

* File encryption.

* Instant search available through all Explorer windows.

* Support for DirectX 10.

* Self-healing, the ability to automatically detect and correct problems that may be encountered on the computer.

* Shadow copy, a feature that allows you to recover deleted files.

* Improved photo gallery and control of photographs.

* Windows Sidebar and gadgets that allows you to add an almost endless list of different gadgets.

* More parental control.

* Improved Windows Calendar, with the ability to set tasks and appointments.

* And much more.

WINDOWS VISTA
RELEASED JANUARY 30, 2007
VISTA-CAPABLE REQUIREMENTS:
(VISTA WITHOUT AERO)

Computer:

100% IBM Compatible

Processor:

800 MHz Intel-compatible

Memory:

512MB RAM

Drives:

20GB disk space DVD Drive

Sound:

Standard Sound card for sound capability.

Video:

DirectX 9.0 compatible video card.

Controls:

100% compatible Microsoft Keyboard / Mouse.

OPERATING SYSTEM:

WINDOWS 2000 / XP TO UPGRADE. VISTA PREMIUM-READY PCS

Computer:

100% IBM Compatible

Processor:

1GHz Intel-compatible

Memory:

1GB RAM

Drives:

40GB disk space DVD Drive

Sound:

Standard Sound card for sound capability.

Video:

DirectX 9.0 compatible video card.
64MB of Video RAM (1440x900)
128MB of Video RAM (1920x1200 / Dual monitor support)
256MB of Video RAM (>1920x1200)

Controls:

100% compatible Microsoft Keyboard / Mouse.

Operating System:

Windows 2000 / XP to upgrade.

WINDOWS VISTA EDITIONS OVERVIEW

No matter whether it is for home entertainment or to business productivity-there's an edition of Windows Vista that's right for you.

ULTIMATE

Windows Vista Ultimate is the choice for those who want to have it all. Easily shift between the worlds of productivity and play with the most complete edition of Windows Vista. Ultimate provides the power, security, and mobility features needed for work, and all the entertainment features that you want for fun.

HOME PREMIUM

Windows Vista Home Premium is the preferred edition for home desktop and mobile PCs. It provides a breakthrough design that brings your world into sharper focus while delivering the productivity, entertainment, and security you need from your PC at home or on the go.

HOME BASIC

Windows Vista Home Basic is ideal for homes with basic computing needs like e-mail, browsing the Internet, and viewing photos. Easy to set up and maintain, it enables you to quickly find what you're looking for on your PC and the Internet, while providing a more secure environment to help protect you from an unpredictable world.

BUSINESS

Windows Vista Business is the first edition of Windows designed specifically to meet the needs of small businesses. You'll spend less time on technology support-related issues-so you can spend more time making your business successful. Windows Vista Business is the definitive choice for your business today and tomorrow.

ENTERPRISE

Designed to significantly lower IT costs and risks, Windows Vista Enterprise meets the needs of large, global organizations with complex IT infrastructures.

COMPUTER HISTORY
SINCE 2000

YEAR

EVENT

2000

Many experts, governments and businesses feared that January 1st 2000 could cause serious issues with the date stamp on computers. The belief was that because many old computers relied off of the last two digits of a year such as 99 for 1999, when the year 2000 came 2000 would set the computers to 00 causing the computer to think it was 1900. Called the Year 2000 bug many individuals feared for the worst however because of preparation Year 2000 only caused a few glitches, however no catastrophes.

2000

Microsoft Bill Gates relinquishes his title as CEO to MS President Steve Ballmer on January 13, 2000.

2000

CNR is introduced by Intel February 07, 2000

2000

Microsoft Windows 2000 is released February of 2000.

2000

U.S. Judge Thomas Penfield announced today after over 2-years in the court that Microsoft be split into two companies although will remain intact until the appeals process is exhausted.

2000

The Children's Online Privacy Protection Act becomes effective April 21, 2000.

2000

ATI introduces their Radeon product line on April 24, 2000.

2000

On June 24, 2000 U.S. President Bill Clinton makes the first ever Presidential webcast among the announcements President Bill Clinton announces a new web site that will be able to search all government resources.

2000

Jack Kilby is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.

2000

ATA-5 is approved by ANSI.

2000

Microsoft releases Windows ME June 19, 2000.

2000

Microsoft introduces C# to the public in June 2000.

2000

Microsoft release DirectX 8, November 9, 2000.

2001

January 02, 2001 - Intel announced that it will recall its 1.13 GHz Pentium III processors due to a glitch. Users with these processors should contact their vendors for additional information about the recall.

2001

January 1, 2001 - Microsoft announces Windows 95 is now a legacy item and will no longer be sold or shipped to any more customers.

2001

Bill Gates unveils the Xbox on January 7th 2001.

2001

The man who practically invented the Silicon Valley success story, Hewlett-Packard Co. co-founder William Hewlett, dies at his home, he was 87.

2001

Chip-making giant Intel Corp. has agreed to acquire Xircom Inc., a maker of mobile computing gear, for about $748 million.

2001

Claude Elwood Shannon, the mathematician who laid the foundation of modern information theory while working at Bell Labs in the 1940s, died on February 24, 2001. He was 85.

2001

March 08, AOL membership surpasses 28 Million.

2001

Apple introduces Mac OS X 10.0 code named Cheetah.

2001

March 09, MacAfee releases first handheld virus protection software.

2001

March 31, After 21 years of selling hard drives, Quantum on Friday formally left the business to turn its full attention to higher-level storage products and services.

2001

April 20, Dell computers becomes the largest PC maker.

2001

June 5, 2001, Nevada becomes the first U.S. state to vote to legalize online gambling.

2001

Airlines begin to implement methods of gaining Internet access while flying.

2001

Apple introduces Mac OS X 10.1 code named Puma.

2001

USB 2.0 is introduced.

2001

Microsoft announces April 11, 2001 that it will no longer include Clippy with future releases of Microsoft Office.

2001

July 20, 2001 - PC shipments worst since 1986, as only Dell grows.

2001

Egghead files for Bankruptcy protection on August 18, 2001.

2001

SATA 1.0 is introduced in August 2001.

2001

AST Computers goes out of business and stops selling computers.

2001

Hewlett Packard announces plans to buy Compaq on September sixth.

2001

Microsoft Windows XP home and professional editions are released October 25, 2001.

2001

Microsoft Windows XP 64-Bit Edition (Version 2002) for Itanium systems is released.

2001

Microsoft release DirectX 9, November 8, 2001.

2002

Excite@Home, one of the largest ISP's files for bankruptcy and closes its doors March, 02, 2002.

2002

Approximately 1 billion PCs have been shipped worldwide since the mid-'70s, according to a study released by consulting firm Gartner.

2002

PayPal is acquired by eBay.

2002

WorldCom the Number 2 long-distance telephone and data service company files for bankruptcy June 21, 2002.

2002

PCI Express is approved as standard.

2002

Edsger Dijkstra passes away August 6, 2002.

2002

Apple introduces Mac OS X 10.2 code named Jaguar.

2002

Cartoon turtle named "Dewie" introduced to help promote Internet safety and security.

2002

Microsoft release DirectX 9, December 19, 2002.

2002

Roxio acquires all the assets of Napster Inc. on November 25, 2002.

2003

PCMCIA announces the development of a new standard codenamed NEWCARD on February 19, 2003.

2003

Supreme court rules that sex offenders information and pictures can be posted online on March 3, 2003.

2003

Microsoft Windows XP 64-Bit Edition (Version 2003) for Itanium 2 systems is released on March 28, 2003.

2003

Microsoft Windows Server 2003 is released March 28, 2003.

2003

Mozilla Foundation is founded in July 2003.

2003

MySpace is founded.

2003

Eugene Kleiner passes away November 20, 2003.

2003

Apple introduces Mac OS X 10.3 code named Panther October 25, 2003.

2004

Comcast purchases TechTV March 25, 2004 to form G4TechTV.

2004

Google announces Gmail on April 1, 2004.

2004

Lindows changes it's name to Linspire April 14, 2004.

2004

Kelkea purchases the assets of MAPS.

2004

IBM sells its computing division to Lenovo Group for $1.75 billion on December 08, 2004

2005

Lenovo completes the acquisition of IBM's Personal Computing Division.

2005

YouTube is founded.

2005

Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 Edition is released on April 24, 2005.

2005

Microsoft announces it's next operating system, codenamed "Longhorn" will be named Windows Vista on July 23, 2005.

2005

IBM officially announces on July 14, 2005 that all sales of OS/2 will end on December 23, 2005 and that all support from IBM for OS/2 will end on December 16, 2005.

2005

On September 12, 2005 eBay acquired Skype for approximately $2.6billion.

2005

Adobe completes its acquisition of Macromedia on December 3, 2005.

2006

On January 5, 2006 Intel introduces the Core Duo.

2006

On July 27, 2006 Intel introduces the Core 2 Duo processors.

2006

The Intel Core 2 Extreme is first released on July 29, 2006.

2006

Skype announced that it had over 100 million registered users.

2006

Google announces plans to purchase YouTube for 1.65 Billion on October 9, 2006.

2006

On November 14, 2006 Microsoft released its portable Zune media player.

2007

Apple announces in January 1, 2007 that it will drop computer from its name as it becomes a company who deals with more than computers.

2007

Apply introduces the iPhone to the public at the January Macworld Conference & Expo.

DETERMINING VERSION

Each release of the Windows Operating System has had various versions. To know the version of currently using windows simple write the command winver in RUN section.