PAKISTANI MANGO AND KINNO

Technical know-how needs to be made available to the growers as well as solving marketing and export problems.

M.R. CHAUDHRY
Feb 19 - 25, 2007

MANGO

Mango is known as the "King of Asiatic fruits". Mango is fleshy

Pakistan is blessed with a variety of flowers, fauna and fruit. Among fruits, mango and citrus fruits, particularly Kinno, enjoy great importance. Mango is a tropical and sub-tropical fruit. It is fleshy drupe in various sizes and shapes with mixtures of green, yellow and red colour. India and Burma are known to be the origin of mango. It is widely grown in India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Philippines, Haiti and Brazil. Pakistan horticulturists worked very hard in producing 25 new and innovative varieties of mangoes, of which well known varieties are: Langra, Chausa, Sindhry, Bihishti, Samar, Malda, Anwarrittol, Fajri Kalan, Shan-i-Khuda, Lab-e-Mashraq, Zafran, Fazli, etc.

Sindhri, which is mostly grown in Sindh, is an early variety and is commonly used for preparing juice. Malda is an early variety of Punjab. General feeling is that Pakistani mango has surpassed the quality, taste, flavour and fragrance of mangoes of other countries. Its demand is, therefore, increasing. A former Counsel General of China in a press interview spoke very high of Pakistani mangoes and admitted that although China was producing mangoes, they were not as tasty and sweet as Pakistani mangoes, which are superb.

It has wonderful food value, containing minerals and vitamins, as is evident from the following details.

FOOD VALUE

MINERALS AND VITAMINS

Moisture

81%

Calcium

14 mg

Protein

0.6%

Phosphorus

16 mg

Fat

0.4%

Iron

1.3 mg

Minerals

0.4%

Vitamin C

16.0%

Fibre

0.7%

Small amounts of Vitamin

.

Carbohydrates

16.9%

'B' Complex

.
.

100%

. .

*Value per 100 gms edible Calorific Value-74

In country-wise production of Mango, year 2005, Pakistan stands at the fourth position amongst 90 mango producing countries of the world. (Source FAO)

SR.#

COUNTRY

PRODUCTION (MT)

%AGE SHARE

YIELD KG/HA

1

India

10,800,000

38.70

6750

2

China

3,673,000

13.16

8470

3

Thailand

1,800,000

6.45

6315

4

Pakistan

1,673,900

6.00

11048

 


MANGO EXPORTS IN 2004-2005:

Mexico stood first by exporting

212,505 metric tonnes,

India second by exporting

156,222 " "

Brazil third by exporting

111,181 " "

Pakistan fourth by exporting

82059 " "

Some 20 years ago Pakistan was the second biggest exporter of mangoes. July to October is the supply season of mangoes from Pakistan, Israel, Puerto Rico and a few varieties from Mexico. Mango is the second major fruit crop in Pakistan grown on an area of 151,535 hectares with production of 1,673,497 tons. (Source Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan, MINFAL, Islamabad 2004-05).

Ministry of Science and Technology launched a project in March 2002 for the production of dried slices of mango and other fruits. Processed fruits are consumed locally and exported to other countries. Expectedly, it would bring an income of at least US$600,000 in the first commercial production.

MARKETING PROBLEMS & SUGGESTIONS:

Inadequate knowledge of picking, grading, packing, handling and transportation results in about 40 percent post-harvest losses. Lack of technical knowledge about plant protection, selecting and planting suitable varieties from nursery matching the soil, water and nutrient and requirements for expansion of mango orchards and pest control also contribute severely to this effect. Lack of proper cold storage and refrigerated transport facilities are main problems, which cause high losses. Unreasonable market charges and other malpractices are also an impediment in the trade.

All these problems are needed to be addressed as early as possible. Mango processing and export need to be declared as an industry and the government must provide a cooling chain from farm to market, credit for processing machinery and equipment for producing value-added products for indigenous consumption and export abroad. Cold storage arrangements need to be made at Multan and Bahawalpur as well as at airports, besides adequate cargo booking by air and sea well in time. PIA should reduce cargo charges at Rs.10 per kg for exports to European and American markets. Exports Promotion Bureau, Ministry of Commerce, commercial attaches of our foreign missions and chambers of commerce & industry should provide demands at the earliest along with the required terms and specifications from the international markets and foreign embassies. Our exporters need to be competitive using price elasticity, grading, maintaining quality and standard of wrapping, packing, creating suitable distribution points for sales promotion. Special flights may be started from Multan, Bahawalpur and Rahimyar Khan during the peak season. Horticulturists and exporters also need to be educated to fulfill WTO's SPS requirements.

CITRUS

Citrus cultivars are grown in varying quantities in the countries of tropical and sub-tropical climates. Citrus stands first in area and production amongst the world's fruit trees. In Pakistan also, citrus fruits are grown on an area of 487 thousand acres with production of 1.9 million tons annually. Punjab produces 95 percent of the crop because of suitable growing and climatic conditions, adequate water and skillful horticulturists.

AREA AND PRODUCTION OF CITRUS IN PAKISTAN 2004-05

PRODUCTION

AREA" 000" ACRES

PRODUCTION "000" TONNES

% SHARE

Punjab

422.06

1623.5

95.04

Sindh

10.13

27.7

1.89

NWFP

10.63

38

2.12

Baluchisstan

5.93

13.1

0.95

Pakistan

448.75

1702.3

100.00

There is a good variety of citrus fruit grown in Pakistan, including Kinno, Mandrine, Oarange, Musambi, Grape Fruit, Leman Slure Lime, Sour Orange, Sweet Lime and others.

Kinno is grown on an area of 323,731 thousand acres with production of 1,533,977 thousand tones and 81.93 percentage share of total citrus production in Pakistan. (Source: Crop Reporting Service, Punjab: 2000-01).

Kinno differs from oranges because nearly the entire Kinno (tangerine) production is meant for the fresh fruit market. The major producers of this variety are China, Spain and Japan followed by Brazil, Korea, Pakistan, Italy, Turkey, Egypt, United States, Morocco and Argentine. Spain has had produced seedless Kinno. Spain accounts for 50 percent of the world's exports of fresh tangerines. The other major exporters are Morocco and China. Morocco has a well established Clementon industry and Europe and the United States are its major markets.

TANGERINE PRODUCTION IN 2004-05

SR.#

COUNTRIES

PRODUCTION (MT)

%AGE SHARE

1

China

11,395,000

48.95

2

Spain

1,944,600

8.35

3

Brazil

1,270,000

5.46

4

Japan

1,100,000

4.72

5

Iran

720,000

3.09

6

Thailand

670,000

2.88

7

Egypt

665,000

2.86

8

Italy

661,823

2.84

9

Turkey

585,000

2.51

10

Korea, Republic of

580,000

2.49

11

Argentina

450,000

1.93

12

Pakistan

434,000

1.86

(Source: FAO)

Kinno is a rich source of protective food and contains vitamins and minerals, which makes it a health promoting fruit. In this respect it is superior to orange. The season of Kinno is December to March and its peak time is mid-January. Kinno has many special qualities. It can be peeled off easily with bare hands and can be enjoyed anywhere any time. It has high juice content, vitamin C and minerals, which make it most satisfying and healthy food. Pulp is used to make delicious desserts, jams and sauces. Skin is used for making cosmetics essence.

Major Kinno growing area in Punjab are: Sargodha, T.T. Singh, Mandi Baha-ud-Din, Sahiwal, Khanewal, Vehari, Bahawalpur, Layyah, Okara and Multan.

(Source: Crop Reporting Service, Punjab)

Most of this variety is consumed in the country of production. Thus it is largely consumed in China, Japan, Pakistan, Egypt, etc.

First five leading exporters of Kinno in 2003-04: Spain tops tangerine exports with over 48 percent share and the success of Clementine varieties serve to support its position. China is the second largest exporter. Pakistan stands at the fifth position in the world.

SR.#

COUNTRIES

QUANTITY

VALUE

   

MT

%AGE SHARE

1000 $

A.U.P.

1

Spain

1420463

48.88

1321300

930

2

China

300159

10.33

85492

285

3

Turkey

216102

7.44

95559

442

4

Morocco

155804

5.36

115177

739

5

Pakistan

149587

5.15

30411

203

Source: FAO

CITRUS EXPORTS FROM PAKISTAN

Pakistan is one of the major citrus and Kinno producing countries in the world. Demand of Pakistani Kinno is on the rise, particularly in the Middle East and the Gulf states. However, only 8 per cent of the total production of Pakistani fruits is exported abroad while on the other hand Greece, Lebanon, Morocco, Spain and Iran export 50 per cent of their fruit production.

KINNO EXPORTS FROM PAKISTAN

YEAR

QUANTITY METRIC TONNE

VALUE MILLION RS.

1999-00

82750

720.57

2000-01

97028

950.35

2001-02

121692

1278.67

2002-03

94806

1268.53

2003-04

149587

1771.34

2004-05

74508

1225.87

MARKETING PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTIONS:

Citrus, especially Kinno, has short shelf life. Lack of cold storage is a great problem. Lack of processing industry cannot be skipped over to save losses. Technical know-how needs to be made available to the growers for processing and preparation of fruit for export as well as for value addition.