FOOD PRODUCTION IN THE COUNTRY
July 23 - 29, 2007
Pakistan a land of many splendorous opportunities, the repository of a unique blend of history and culture from east to the west, the cradle of the ancient civilization which developed around the Indus Valley. It is the seventh most populous country of the world, with 159 million tough, diligent and hardworking people, which has entered the 21st century as an equal partner in the community of nations.
Pakistan ranks amongst the top seven fastest growing economies of Asia. Except for the periods in the fifties and seventies, the annual gross product has been growing at more than 6% per year. The significance agriculture in food industry to Pakistan economy can be gauged from the fact that it contributes approximately 23 per cent to total GDP. With a natural inclination towards agro resources,
Pakistan is capable of producing a vast variety of food commodities fresh as well as processed. Increasingly now, the food industry is capitalizing on the availability and use of latest machinery to meet growing domestic and international demand. Pakistan has a proven track record of assimilating the entire spectrum of food related technology from food processing to packaging, storage and linked technologies of different ingredients.
In the backdrop of a buoyant growth rate of 8.5 per cent , the contribution of the agro processing industry was a healthy 22.7 percent of total value added in the manufacturing sector, in terms of employment repository the agricultural sector contributes over 44.5 per cent of the available workforce and provides livelihood directly to 70 per cent of then rural population.
Agriculture also serves as a major supplier of raw materials to industry as well as a market for industrial products and also contributes substantially to Pakistan's export earning. This is mainly due to the presence of vast agricultural resources, which are mainly due to the country's geographical location and landscape where Pakistan is blessed with fertile land and varied weather. In addition the country has well irrigated system with the result that all types of agriculture produce are grown depending upon the climate and soil quality conditions. However, it is experiencing the problem of low and stagnant productivity on the one hand and fast growing population on the other hand.
Despite many natural gifts, Pakistan is not in a happy position as far as its food position is concerned, because the per hectare yields of its major crops are stagnant and far below their production potential .
There are multiple causes for this, about 90 per cent of the total area is arid and semi-arid the ever growing desertification and deterioration of productive ecosystems have posed a serious threat to its land resources of array of problems leading their depletion, a big chunk of land is being lost to agricultural productivity through loss of fertility and land erosion and millions of hectares of fertile land in the irrigated belt is rendered unproductive due to twin menace of water -logging and salinity.
Fertile lands located near and around the towns and cities are being used for industrial purposes. So this valuable land is being lost to agriculture. In spite of such situation , Pakistan is at a vantage position in agricultural productivity in the nations of the world. Its large network irrigation system, constructed in 1850 is about 63,000 kilometers long throughout the country, which supplies water to various crops in all seasons throughout the year and in this way about 85 per cent of the crops are irrigated by Indus water managed through dams and reservoirs and channels.
MAJOR & MINOR CROPS
Pakistan agriculture and agriculture related products are comprised of major and minor crops, vegetables and spices, fruits, floriculture, edible oils, livestock, milk, poultry, fisheries etc. Pakistanis major and minor food crops are wheat, rice, jawar, bajra, barley; cash crops are sugarcane, cotton, tobacco, jute sugarbeet and guarseed; pulses are gram, mung, masoor, matter, edible oilseeds are sesamum, groundnut, soybean, sunflower, safflower, and cotton seed. The production of some important crops (000 tons) in are wheat (21,109), rice(4,991), bajra (193), jawar (186),maize (2,275), barley (96), gram (761)., sugarcane (45,316), cotton (2,486), tobacco ( 84), rapeseed and mustard (227), sesamum (30). The total production of all cereal crops come to 29905X103 tons. The wheat products are biscuits, wafers, white and brown bread, rusks etc.
Ranked fourth in worldwide sugarcane production and twelfth in sugarcane production it gives further credence to Pakistanis continued emphasis and growth in the sector. The production of sugar is about 3.99 million tons from 77 mills. Some sugar products are sweets, toffees, chocolates, candies, sugar syrup, glucose and other sugar preparation. Within agriculture the horticulture i.e. fruits, vegetables and floriculture "as an important sub-sector of the agricultural economy. Approximately yearly manufacture of fruits, vegetables and spices is 12 million tons.
FRUITS & VEGETABLE
The important fruits include (000 tons): Citrus (1,948), mango(1,074), dates (622), apples (380), banana (158), apricot (206), almonds(23), grapes(49), guava (571), peach (70), pears(31),plums(61), pomegranate (50). The production of all fruits come to 622.
The horticulture produce holds a huge market for exports. The relative importance of this sector can be gauged with high growth rate of Exports of fruits and vegetables from Pakistan due to ever increasing demand in the existing and international markets Some of fruits grown have great potential for exports, which are available in volumes, varieties and are of rich flavor. These are mangoes, citrus, grapes, dates, apples, peaches, and cherries. Other prominent fruits have enormous export potential are plums, pears, guava, etc. Among vegetables, potatoes and onions are vastly grown in Pakistan, hold a large global market because of competitive advantage due to superior variety, volume and price. Horticulture related processing industry is another mentionable area, which has tremendous export potential. The demand of processed food is high in the export markets such as graded fresh fruit, citrus juice, mango pulp, pickles, ketchups, sauces, canned products, tomato paste etc. The edible oil production (000 tons) in the country is 740 (only 30 percent). The imports amount of the oil is 360 (about 70 per cent)and consumption is 2,100. Pakistan spend a huge amount on its oil import bill.
The production of vegetables (000 tons) are: tomato(426), potato((2025), onion (1,817),garlic(56), chillies (91), turmeric( 38), ginger( 41)The production of all types of vegetables come to 3048. Livestock is an important sector of agriculture in Pakistan which accounts for 46.8 per cent of agricultural value added and about 10.8 per cent of the GDP. The livestock population is as (million numbers): Buffalo(26.3), cattle(24.2), goat (56.7), sheep (24.9), poultry (366), camels (0.8), asses (4.2), horses (.3), mules (.3). In the similar manner the livestock products are as ( 000 tons): milk (31,051), beef (1,115), mutton (740) and fat (136.3). The dairy products are UHT milk, butter , yogurt, cheese, power milk, ice cream.
Poultry farming is an agro-based industry. The demand for white meat is increasing with the change in eating hab it, where as, the livestock population is decreasing and the gap between the demand and supply of the meat is expected to be met through poultry meat. Poultry The poultry meat production is as (000 tons): (416), eggs(million No- 8,529).The livestock and poultry products are fresh beef, mutton, poultry meat.
Fishery plays an important role in Pakistanis economy and is considered to an important source of livelihood for the people of Pakistan. Fisheries share in GDP, though very little contributes substantially to the national income through export earning. The production (000 tons) of Inland (170) and Marine fish were (404).The seafood and fishery products are chilled or frozen fish, fish meet. During the year 2004, 90.225 M. tons valued at Rs.7.6 billion fish and fishery products were exported to Japan., USA, Germany, Middle East, Sri Lanka, China etc Another sub-segment that shows tremendous potential is the beverage industry; currently there are about 170 units in operation around the country that produce carbonated soft drinks, fruit juices/pulp, syrup and fruit based drink and squashes. Besides having a thriving local industry, Pakistan is among 10 most important markets for global consumer brand leaders.. The per capita consumption of major food items by the population are relatively high in Pakistan. The consumption quantity of some of the major items are as (kg/annum):Wheat 113; Rice 13; Pulses 6.4; Edible oil 12.5; Meat 14,8; Milk 85,5, Fish 1.9; Sugar 26; Tea 1.0.
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