THIRD GENERATION TECHNOLOGY IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS
It can be used anywhere by the mobile users as they can access high speed Internet, videoconferencing and basic video/TV services.
Mar 05 - 11, 2007
Another technology, as its name suggests, follows the first generation (1G) and second generation (2G) in wireless communications, which influences the people and make them more efficient in communication by adopting this technology all over the world due to its extraordinary features and benefits. UMTS (Universal Mode Telecommunications System) i.e. "third generation" (3G) is a next generation high-speed mobile system based on GSM (Global System for Mobile communication). It supports multimedia, packet-based transmission of voice text, broadband and video data at rates from 384 kilo bytes per second (Kbps) to more than 2 mega bytes per second (Mbps). Because of its GSM communication standards and its equivalence high speed services offered by broadband it can be used anywhere by the mobile users as they can access high speed Internet, videoconferencing and basic video/TV services. Once UMTS is fully implemented, computer and phone users can be constantly attached to the Internet as they travel and as they roam, the service has the same set of capabilities no matter where they travel.
1G: In the late 1970s, 1G system has been introduced featuring the first mobile phone system, "cellular mobile radio telephone". These networks used analog voice signaling, and were little more sophisticated than the repeater networks used by amateur radio operators. This system lasted through the 1980s.
2G: 2 G was introduced in the beginning phase of 1990s and much of this technology is still in use. The 2G cell phone features digital voice encoding. Examples include CDMA and GSM. Since its inception, 2G technology has steadily improved with increased bandwidth, packet routing and the introduction of multimedia.
Due to 3G high-speed services and broadband it can support a minimum of 2 Mbps for slow-moving users (walking) and 384 Kbps for fast moving vehicles. 3G was developed to meet the ever-growing consumer demand for mobile network capacity and services. From the youth-inspired excitement for SMS to a need for seamless connectivity to the corporate network while traveling, consumers have embraced the benefits of mobility.
In mid 1980s International Telecommunication Union (ITU) started the process of defining the 3G standard back. 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project) is a global body that brings together several telecommunications standards bodies from Europe, Japan, United States, Korea and China. It was established in 1998 to continue developing the 3G specifications.
GSM: In 1991 in Finland, GSM technology was first launched in mobiles.GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) is a digital mobile telephony system that uses a variation of time division multiple access (TDMA) and is the most widely used for the three digital wireless telephony technologies (TDMA, GSM, and CDMA). GSM compresses the data and make it digital, then sends it down a channel with two other streams of user data, each in its own time slot.
GSM plays a vital role in the evolution of wireless mobile telecommunications that includes Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE), High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HCSD), General Packet Radio System (GPRS) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS).
Today, more than 690 mobile networks provide GSM services across 213 countries.
By keeping in view the needs of growing mobile workforce it provides a better platform to the typical road warriors, a satellite office, commuting as well as to those who work from home. 3G extends the office LAN to these mobile workers, providing access to email, corporate networks, and the Internet. There are many personal-use applications as well, ranging from "smart" appliances to e-commerce and multimedia applications. And as 3G technology evolves, advanced applications beyond those envisioned today are sure to be developed.
CDMA: CDMA (Code-Division Multiple Access) refers to any of several protocols used in so-called second-generation (2G) and third-generation (3G) wireless communications. CDMA helps in optimizing the use of available bandwidth by allowing numerous signals to occupy a single transmission channel.
TDMA: TDMA (time division multiple access) increases the amount of data that can be carried by dividing each cellular channel into three time slots in a digital cellular telephone communication.
This system has been implemented somewhat differently and in potentially incompatible ways by Digital-American Mobile Phone Service (D-AMPS), Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) and Personal Digital Cellular (PDC).
GPRS: General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) is based on Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication. Through GPRS one can have a continuity of Internet connection for mobile phones and computer users. It is a packet-based wireless communication service that promises data rates from 56 up to 114 Kbps. Due to this higher data rates it allows users to take part in video conferences and interact with multimedia Web sites and similar applications using mobile handheld devices as well as notebook computers.
Among many benefits for 3G technology, few are given below:
*A manager can conduct a teleconference with his colleagues to discuss an upcoming presentation while travelling or even while on the road. He can download or do editing online while talking.
*Users can take advantage of mobile video on demand to watch news, sports highlights and video clips anytime on their mobile devices from anywhere in the world.
*Customer Relationship Management (CRM) can use 3G technology to have control over customer's profile. For example, field engineers while travelling can update the customer files, and even close the trouble ticket while onsite. Sales people can create and place orders while still at the customer's location.
*3G provide access to traffic-view cameras, Internet access, gaming and video-streaming. One can browse the Internet from its notebook at a speed approximately 2 to 25 times faster.
Today's cellular telephone systems are mainly circuit-switched, with connections always dependent on circuit availability. Packet-switched connection, using the IP (Internet Protocol), means that a virtual connection is always available to any other end point in the network. It will also make it possible to provide new services, such as alternative billing methods (pay-per-bit, pay-per-session, flat rate, asymmetric bandwidth, and others). The higher bandwidth of UMTS also promises new services, such as video conferencing. UMTS promises to realize the Virtual Home Environment in which a roaming user can have the same services to which the user is accustomed when at home or in the office, through a combination of transparent terrestrial and satellite connections.