EDUCATION PROFILE AND HIGHER EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN

By ASHIQUE ALI JOYO
Feb 02 - 15, 2004

Education is a powerful catalyzing agent which provides mental physical, ideological and moral training to individuals, so as to enable them to have full consciousness of their purpose in life and equip them to achieve that purpose. It is an instrument for the spiritual development as well as the material fulfillment of human needs. This Research article is collected on the secondary data. The purpose of this research is to highlight the educational scenario in Pakistan.

According to Aristotle: "Educated men are as much superior to uneducated men as the living are to the dead''

While Plato says: "The direction in which education starts a man will determine his future life'' Pakistan got independence on 14 August, 1947 as a independent Muslim Sovereign State. At present it has four provinces Punjab, Sindh, NWFP, Balochistan, Federally Administered Northern and Tribal Regions and State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The literacy rate in Pakistan was 16% in 1951 and it stood 51.6% in 2003. (63% for male and 38% for female.) The number of Primary schools increased from 0.008 million in 1947 to 0.170 million in 2003.

EDUCATIONAL SCENARIO

From table 1 to 9 highlights the position of education in Pakistan

Table No-1
THE ACADEMIC STRUCTURE OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM OF EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN IS AS UNDER

S.No

Level

Class

Year of Duration

Age Group

1

Primary Education

I-V

5

6-10

2

Secondary Education

VI-X

5

11-15

3

Higher Secondary Education

XI-XII

2

16-17

4

College Education

XIII-XIV

2

18-19

5

University Education

XV-XVI

2

20-21

Source: Malik Dr Said Rasul. The System of education in Pakistan P-7.NBF Islamabad 1991

 


 

Table No- 2
NUMBER OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION IN PAKISTAN

S.No

Level

2001-02

1

Primary Schools (000)

164.2

2

Middle Schools (000)

19.1

3

High School (000)

12.9

4

Secondary Schools (numbers).

647

5

Arts & Sciences Colleges (numbers)

925

6

Professional Colleges (numbers)

374

7

Universities (numbers)

29*

Source: Economic Survey of Pakistan 2002-03, Islamabad, 2003. Statistical Section Page 105.

*There are 45 Public Universities in Pakistan as mentioned in Table No. 5

Table No- 3
ENROLMENT IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION IN PAKISTAN

S.No

Level

2001-02

1

Primary Stage (000)

19,521

2

Middle Stage (000)

3,988

3

High School (000)

1,704

4

Secondary Stage (numbers).

87

5

Arts & Sciences Colleges (numbers)

770

6

Professional Colleges (numbers)

161,191

7

Universities (numbers)

117,863

Source: Economic Survey of Pakistan 2002-03, Islamabad, 2003. Statistical Section Page 105.

 


 

Table No- 4
NUMBER OF TEACHERS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL IN PAKISTAN

S.No

Level

2001-02

1

Primary Schools (000)

335.1

2

Middle Schools (000)

101.2

3

High School (000)

165.0

4

Secondary Schools (numbers).

9,611

5

Arts & Sciences Colleges (numbers)

27,822

6

Professional Colleges (numbers)

9,382

7

Universities (numbers)

5,160

Source: Economic Survey of Pakistan 2002-03, Islamabad, 2003. Statistical Section Page 105.

 


 

Table No 5
CHARTERED/RECOGNIZED UNIVERSITIES/DEGREE AWARDING INSTITUTION IN PUBLIC SECTOR

PROVINCE

UNIVERSITIES

DEGREE AWARDING INSTITUTION

Punjab

16

2

Sindh

8

2

NWFP

7

2

Balochistan

3

-

Federal Area

9

2

AJ&K

01

-

Nothern Area

01

-

Total

45

8

Source: HEC, A&A Division.

 


 

Table No-6
CHARTERED/RECOGNIZED UNIVERSITIES/DEGREE AWARDING INSTITUTION IN PRIVATE SECTOR

PROVINCE

UNIVERSITIES

DEGREE AWARDING INSTITUTION

Punjab

5

6

Sindh

11

10

NWFP

7

01

Balochistan

01

-

Federal Area

3

-

AJ&K

2

-

Nothern Area

-

-

Total

29

17

Source: HEC, A&A Division.

 


 

Table No- 7
AREA STUDY CENTRES

PROVINCE

NUMBER(S)

Punjab

1

Sindh

2

NWFP

1

Balochistan

1

Federal Area

1

Total

6

Source: HEC, Academic Division

 


 

Table No-8
PAKISTAN STUDY CENTRES

PROVINCE

Number(s)

Punjab

1

Sindh

2

NWFP

1

Balochistan

1

Federal Area

1

Total

6

Source: HEC, Academic Division

 


 

Table No-9
CENTRES OF EXCELLENCE

PROVINCE

Number(s)

Punjab

3

Sindh

2

NWFP

2

Balochistan

1

Federal Area

1

Total

9

Source: HEC, Academics Division

 


 

Table No-10
FINANCIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR EDUCATION REFORMS ACTION PLAN
 2001-05

Programs

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

Total

%

Literacy campaign

0.8

2.0

2.5

3.0

8.3

8.3

Elementary Education

4.0

9.0

10.0

11.0

34.0

34

Secondary Education

1.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

10.0

10

Technical Education

0

3.0

5.0

7.0

15.0

15

Higher/College Education

1.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

10.0

10

Main streaming Madaris

0

5.0

5.0

4.0

14.0

14

Public- Private Partnership

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.7

0.4

Quality Assurance

1.0

2.0

2.0

3.0

8.0

8

Total

7.9

27.2

30.7

34.2

100

100

Source. Economic Survey 2002-03 GOP, Islamabad 2003 P- 165

 


 

Table No-11
NATIONAL EDUCATION BUDGET-DURING (1995-96 TO 2002-03)

       

Rs. In billion

Year

Recurring Budget

Development Budget

Total Education Budget

% of GDP

1995-96

39.610

2.585

42.195

2.00

1996-97

40.536

1.968

42.504

2.62

1997-98

46.100

2.984

49.084

2.34

1998-99

46.979

2.427

49.406

2.40

1999-00

51.572

2.430

54.002

1.7

2000-01

54.396

1.966

56.362

1.6

2001-02

64.975

2.500

67.475

1.9

2002-03

67.270

2.604

69.874

1.7

Source: Economic Survey 2002-03, GOP, Islamabad 2003 P-167

 


 

Table No-12
LITERACY RATE POPULATION & GDP GROWTH
From 1999-2003

Year

Literacy Rate

Change by % point

Population Growth

GDP Growth

1999

45.0

1.4

2.29

4.2

2000

47.1

2.1

2.24

3.9

2001

49.0

1.9

2.22

2.4

2002

50.5

1.5

2.16

3.6

2003

51.6

1.1

2.10

5.1

Source: Economic Survey of Pakistan 2002-03 GOP, Islamabad 2003 P-160

 


 

Table No-13
IMPORTANCE OF HEC IN EDUCATION SECTOR

Following Main Programs/Projects of HEC as given in

S. No

Higher Education Commission

01

Development of S&T Manpower through Indigenous Ph.D 300 Scholars

02

Ph.D. Fellowships for 5,000 Scholars

03

Support of Scientific Talent

04

Strengthening of Curriculum and Teachers Training Division, HEC

05

Scholarship for Punjab IT HRD Program

06

Scholarship for Sindh IT HRD Program

07

Scholarship for NWFPIT HRD Program

08

Scholarship for Balochistan IT HRD Program

09

Re-training Public Service Engineering and Scientists

10

Development of Higher Level S&T Manpower through Split Ph.D. Program

11

Merit Scholarship for Ph.D. student in Science & Technology

12

Retraining Retiring Active Researchers University Teachers Holding Ph.D. Degree

13

Scholarship for Ph.D. students in Social Sciences, & Humanities for University teacher

14

Post Doctoral Fellowship Program

15

Reclamation of Talented Pakistanis

16

Inter Provincial Exchange of Students Delegations

17

Talent Farming Scheme III

18

Ph.D. Scholarship for Engineering Sciences (40) China

19

Foreign Faculty Hiring

20

Ph.D. Fellowship for Scientists in Austria (HEC)

21

Ph.D. Scholarship for Basic Sciences in China

22

Improvement and Enhancement of Higher Education Commission in Pakistan (World Bank)

23

National faculty Academy

24

Ph.D. Scholarship for Engineering Sciences Germany

25

Scholarship for FATA, Capital, AJK NA IT HRD Program

26

Overseas Scholarship Scheme for M.S./M.Phil. & Ph.D.

Source HEC, Annual report 2002-03

Table 13 shows that HEC has a number of Projects regarding quality education

A UNESCO REPORT ON HIGHER EDUCATION

"Higher education exists to serve the public interest and not a commodity.....The mission of higher education is to contribute to the sustainable development and improvement of society as a whole by education highly qualified graduates able to meet the needs of all sectors of human activity"

CONCLUSION

At present Government of Pakistan is going to enhance Human Resources Development (HRD), because HRD plays vital role in the development of any country. In this connection education is an important tool for human resources development Education/Higher education could only change destination of the nation, because education contributes economic development, as more educated people can produce more goods & services because of their skill and knowledge. Thus, without the involment of educated worker economic development of country cannot be achieved in this regard HEC is performing such duties and deals with higher education because higher education is responsible to supply highly trained manpower for the country.

REFERENCES

1. Malik, Dr. Said Rasul The System of Education in Pakistan page No. 7, National Book Foundation, Islamabad 1991
2. Economic Survey 2002-2003 GOP, Islamabad-2003
3. Butt Raheela, Pakistan Journal of Education Vol. xix, Issue 1, 2002, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad
4. National Education Policy, 1998-2010, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education, Islamabad
5. Higher Education Commission (HEC) Annual Report 2002-2003