PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND EXPORT OF RICE

Half the world's population subsists wholly or partially on rice

By *Dr. M. AYOOB SHAIKH & 
**HAKIM ALI KANASRO

Mar 10 - 16, 2003 

Rice constitutes as one among 12 major crops being cultivated in Pakistan. It is the third largest agricultural production in terms of area under the different crops. Rice has been recognized as an important cereal crop. The area at 2515.4 thousand hectares under the rice cultivated during 1999-2000 constituted about 11.05% of the aggregate cropped area commanded at 22.76 million hectares in Pakistan. (Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan)

Rice belongs to the family "Gramineae" its local name Chanwar/ Chanwal, and there are many varieties. Paddy cultivation stated before the dawn of civilization from the evidence, it seems that rice was first cultivated as a staple food crop of Asia. It has been cultivated in China, some 5,000 years ago. Then, it was introduced into India before the time of the Greeks. (Khoso AW 1998)

Now rice cultivation has been carried into all regions with necessary warmth and abundant moisture favorable to its growth, mainly sub-tropical rather than hot or cold. It has been estimated that half the world's population subsists wholly or partially on rice. After wheat, rice is the 2nd most important crop of the world and more than 90% is currently grown in Asia, because in Asia it is the main item of the diet. It has been estimated that rice production needs to be increased by at least 60% over the coming years to meet the demands of the population growth. (Dr. Alam SM 2001)

Area, production and yield per hectare of rice in the main growing countries:

It is clear from the Table-1 that China is the main rice producing country in the world followed by India, Bangladesh, and Thailand. However, in area India remained at the top in the year 1999. Indian area was 35.7%, which was more to China. The yield per hectare is highest at 8.4 tons in Egypt followed by 6.6 tons in USA evidence is shown in the Table-1.

Table-1
AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD PER HECTARE OF RICE IN THE MAIN GROWING COUNTRIES

Country

Area (000) hectares

Production (000) tones

Yield (Kg per hectare

 

1997-98

1998-99

1999-2000

1997-98

1998-99

1999-2000

1997-98

1998-99

1999-2000

India

43420

44478

43000

123388

127045

127600

2842

2856

2967

China

32129

31574

31684

202809

193079

200719

6312

6115

6335

Bangladesh

10177

10263

10470

28183

28293

29857

2769

2757

2852

Thailand

9932

10000

10300

23580

22506

23000

2374

2251

2233

Myanmar (Burma)

5768

5408

5600

17673

16651

17848

3064

3079

3187

Philippines

3842

3170

3900

11269

10236

11200

2933

3229

2872

Japan

1953

1801

1800

12531

11200

11300

6416

6219

6278

Pakistan

2317

2424

2515

4333

4674

5156

1870

1928

2050

USA

1256

1342

1439

8300

8530

9622

6610

6354

6688

Egypt

652

555

695

5580

4450

5900

8560

8018

8489

Total

111446

111015

111403

437646

426664

442202

43750

42806

43951

Other Countries

40734

41128

41717

141289

141219

144585

-

-

-

World

152180

152143

153120

578935

567883

586787

3804

3733

3832

Average

11144.6

11101.5

11140.3

43764.6

42666.4

44220.2

4323

4230.8

4343.9

Share % of Pakistan

2.07

2.183

2.25

0.990

1.09

1.165

-

-

-

Source: Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan, 1999-2000. Islamabad p-106

It is clear from Table-2 that in the light of ten rice growing countries in the year 1999 the Pakistan's area was at the number 7th. When Pakistan's area was compared with that of Bangladesh it was 75.97% less in the same year. In this way, the production of rice is also less as compared to other listed rice producing countries. It is also clear from the Table-1 that per hectare yield of our country is even less as compared to world, whereas in Pakistan there is high potential for increasing yield.

There is a need to change the policies regarding rice production to consumption. It is high time to replace the old traditional rice farming techniques with those modern technologies, which are adopted by the other rice producing countries in the world like Japan, USA, and Egypt. (Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan)

AREA OF RICE CROP

Rice is highly valued cash, staple food crop in Pakistan and is a major export item accounting for 6.1% of total export earnings over the period from 1995-96 to 1999-2000. It accounts for 6.3% in the value added in agriculture and 1.6% in GDP. It is grown in Punjab, Sindh, NWFP, and Balochistan. The area under rice is provisionally estimated to have increased by 19.06% from 2.112 million hectares in 1990-91 to 2.515 million hectares in 1999-2000 as evidence is given in the following Table-2.

Table-2
AREA OF RICE CROP

Year

Punjab

Sindh

NWFP

Balochistan

Pakistan

%

1990-91

1261.8

679.9

62.3

108.7

2112.7

-

1991-92

1231.4

692.4

63.1

110.0

2096.9

-0.747

1992-93

1221.7

568.8

62.1

120.8

1973.4

-5.88

1993-94

1300.6

702.9

62.7

120.9

2187.1

10.82

1994-95

1338.7

598.3

63.3

124.3

2124.6

1.75

1995-96

1327.8

642.3

63.7

128.0

2161.8

1.75

1996-97

1354.5

701.8

64.7

130.1

2251.1

4.130

1997-98

1409.9

689.3

66.8

151.3

2317.3

2.94

1998-99

1492.9

704.1

68.2

158.4

2423.6

4.58

1999-2000

1609.4

690.4

67.1

148.5

2515.4

3.78

Total

13548.7

6670.2

644

1301

22163.9

 

Average

1354.87

667.02

64.4

130.1

2216.39

 

Share of each Province

61.129

30.09

2.91

5.869

100

 

Increase over the period

27.54

1.54

7.70

36.61

19.06

 
Source: Agriculture Statistics of Pakistan, 1999-2000 p-13

Table-2 reveals that the area under rice cultivation has been increased 2.1127 million hectares in the year 1990-91, out of it 1.2618 million hectares were grown in Punjab, 0.679 million hectare were grown in Sindh, 0.0623 million hectare were grown in NWFP and 0.1087 million hectares were grown in Balochistan. Similarly, total area under cultivation of rice increased to 2.2154 million hectares in 1999-2000. Out of it 1.6094 million hectare were grown in Punjab, 0.6904 million hectares were grown in Sindh, 0.0671 million hectares were grown in NWFP and 0.1485 million hectares were grown in Balochistan. Total area under cultivation of rice during 1999-2000 was 19.06% more when compared to that of 1990-91.

PRODUCTION OF RICE

Rice production achievements show that there is a high potential and brighter prospects for increasing rice production. Production of rice during 1999-2000 is 5.156 millions which is 10.3% higher than last year as result of increase in the area, better yield, favorable climatic conditions and less attack of insects, pest/diseases, on the crop during the year 1999-2000. Evidence is given the Table-3

Table-3
PRODUCTION OF RICE

Year

Punjab

Sindh

NWFP

Balochistan

Pakistan

1990-91

1422.3

1433.4

118.0

287.1

3260.8

1991-92

1342.2

1487.5

123.0

290.4

3243.1

1992-93

1403.9

1272.8

111.9

327.5

3116.1

1993-94

1588.2

1954.9

118.4

333.2

3994.7

1994-95

1684.0

1406.7

118.2

237.6

3446.5

1995-96

1803.0

1697.2

118.2

348.1

3966.5

1996-97

1864.0

1961.5

123.5

355.8

4304.8

1997-98

1948.0

1840.9

130.2

413.9

4333.0

1998-99

2176.0

1930.3

133.6

433.9

4673.8

1999-2000

2481.0

2123.0

129.2

422.4

5155.6

Total

17712.6

17108.2

1224.2

3449.9

39494.9

Average

1771.26

1710.82

122.42

344.99

3949.49

Share of each Province

44.85

43.32

3.099

8.73

100

Increase over the period

74.43

48.10

9.49

47.126

58.10

Source: Agriculture Statistics of Pakistan, 1999-2000 p-13

Table-3 shows that Pakistan produced an average 3.9499 million tons rice annually during the period from 1999 to 2000. Out of the total production of rice in Pakistan, Punjab shared 44.85%, Sindh 43.32%, NWFP 3.099% and Balochistan shared 8.73%.

The yield per hectare is also higher by 6.3% in 1999-2000 when compared with 1998-99.

It is also clear from Table-4 that there has been overall increase in the per hectare yield of rice crop during most of the years under review, however, in some of the years viz. 1994-95 and 1997-98 it declined due to non-availability of water in time.

Table-4
Yield Per Hectare (in Kgs)

Year

Punjab

Sindh

NWFP

Balochistan

Pakistan

%

1990-91

1127

2108

1894

2641

1543

-

1991-92

1089

2148

1949

2640

1546

0.19

1992-93

1149

2237

1801

2711

1579

2.13

1993-94

1221

2781

1888

2756

1826

15.64

1994-95

1257

2351

1867

1911

1622

11.17

1995-96

1358

2642

1856

2720

1835

13.13

1996-97

1376

2794

1908

2734

1912

4.19

1997-98

1382

2671

1950

2735

1870

-2.19

1998-99

1458

2742

1959

2739

1928

3.10

1999-2000

1541

3075

1925

2844

2050

6.32

Total

12958

25549

18997

26431

17711

 

Average
Increase over the period

1295.8

2554.9

1899.7

2643.1

1771.1

 

Source: Agriculture Statistics of Pakistan, 1999-2000, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad p-14

It is evident from the Table-4 that average per hectare yield of Balochistan province rank at the top when compared to Punjab, Sindh, NWFP. It was averagely 2643.1 kgs per hectare in Balochistan, whereas it was 1295.8 Kgs per hectare in Punjab, 2554.49 Kgs per hectare in Sindh and 1899.7 Kgs per hectare in NWFP during the decade of 90s.

Pakistan's total rice yield per hectare was 1543 Kgs in 1990-91, which went up and reached to 2050 Kgs per hectare in 1999-2000.

PER CAPITA AVAILABILITY AND CONSUMPTION OF RICE

Rice is the 2nd important crop of the world and main item of the diet of the Asian peoples. The average consumption of rice varies from one country to another. Vietnamese are on the top with consumption of 240 Kgs of rice per person followed by Thais with 204 Kgs of rice per person. But per capita consumption of our country is only 20.78 Kg in the year 1999-2000. The evidence is given in Table-5.

Table-5
Consumption of Rice

Year

Per Capita Availability
of Rice Kgs/ Annum

% Increase (+)
Decrease (-)

1990-91

16.36

-

1991-92

13.10

-19.92

1992-93

15.69

19.77

1993-94

22.27

41.93

1994-95

10.55

-52.62

1995-96

15.52

47.10

1996-97

16.85

5.56

1997-98

15.07

-10.56

1998-99

19.80

31.38

1999-2000

20.78

4.94

Total

165.99

.

Average

16.599

.
Source: Agriculture Statistics of Pakistan, 1999-2000, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad

It is evident from the Table-5 that per capita consumption of rice in Pakistan is 20.78 Kg that is very low as compared to other countries. The people of our country are consuming less rice due to high cost as compared with wheat flour. In this way our country export one third of its rice to other countries of the world. Basmati rice possesses pleasant and exquisite aroma, sweet taste soft texture, delicate curvature, and extra elongation with a least breadth wise swelling on proper cooking.

EXPORT OF RICE

In our country there are only two main rice producing province namely Punjab and Sindh, and they together contributing 88.17 of the total country's production during the decade of 90s. Pakistan is less producing country of rice and its number was 10 in the list of ten largest rice producing countries, but its position is prominent as an exporter. The major buyers for Pakistani rice are Indonesia, Bangladesh, West Africa, East Africa, Gulf countries including Dubai Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Europe, Canada and USA. Dubai is the main market and a distribution center for all kind of rice. Africa Malaysia and Indonesia are the major buyer of IRRI-6 and IRRI-9.

The rice export has surged or moved by 1915,057 tons to fetch more than $400.58 million during July to March in the year 2000-2001. The rice export will continue to increase in the future, as the demand for IRRI and Basmati was high in international market. The following Table-6 shows the rice exports.

Table-6
Rice Exports
(US$ Million)

Year

Basmati

Other Varieties

Total

 

Qty (tons)

Value

Qty (tons)

Value

Qty (tons)

Value

1990-91

466,391

218.45

738,184

127.77

1,204,575

346.22

1991-92

557,898

230.42

953,946

185.26

1,511,844

415.68

1992-93

462,224

199.36

569,908

117.75

1,032,132

317.11

1993-94

305,714

125.96

678,611

116.21

984,325

242.17

1994-95

452,300

183.74

1,399,967

270.51

1,852,267

454.25

1995-96

716,392

295.27

884,132

208.69

1,600,524

503.96

1996-97

457,245

204.94

1,309,961

263.62

1,767,206

468.56

1997-98

552,419

253.35

1,538,824

309.07

2,091,243

562.42

1998-99

588,763

283.33

1,200,011

250.24

1,788,774

533.57

1999-2000

569,823

290.47

1,346,231

249.20

1,916,054

539.67

Total

5,129,169

2285.29

10,619,775

2098.32

15,748,944

4383.61

Average

512,916.9

228.529

1,061,977.5

209.832

1,574,894.4

43,836.1

Share of each Variety and its value

32.568

52.132

67.43

47.867

100

100

Increase over the period

22.177

32.96

82.37

95.03

59.06

55.87

Source: Economic survey 2000-2001, Government of Pakistan, Economic Advisor's Wing, Finance Division Islamabad p-101

It is evident from the Table-6 that Pakistan on an average exported 1574.89 tones rice and obtained value 438.361 US$ million annually during the 90s. Out of the total export of rice Basmati rice shared 32.568% and other varieties shared 67.43%. the value earned by Basmati rice was 52.132% and the value earned by other varieties was 47.867%.

CONCLUSIONS

It is concluded from the above study that our country has big potential to rise its production. The present yield of Pakistan is very low as compared to other countries even our neighbour country India has yield 2987kgs per hectare where soil and climate is the same. We can increase our yield 100% if following efforts are made:

1. Certified paddy seeds,
2. Paddy cultivation must be on time,
3. Proper land preparation,
4. Time of nursery, sowing and transplantation,
5. Proper fertilizer dose,
6. Proper irrigation and agricultural implements,
7. Weeds control,
8. Post harvest operation,
9. Easy loans and incentives,
10. Remove the role of middlemen through TCP, and
11. Educate the farmers to increase productivity & have high yield.

Thus, finally it is concluded that it is the responsibility of the federal and the provincial governments to provide the above facilities to the growers to have more yield per hectare and to increase the out put of the country on one hand and earn foreign exchange on the other.

*Dr. Muhammad Ayoob Shaikh is senior faculty member of Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration at University of Sindh Jamshoro.

** Mr. Hakim Ali Kanasro is also senior faculty member of Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration at University of Sindh Jamshoro.