MUSLIM COUNTRIES AND THEIR AGRICULTURE
There is a lack of relevant information and requirements of different sectors for the economy
By Dr. S.M. ALAM
N.I.A., Tandojam, Pakistan
Dec 04 - 10, 2000
At present, there are over fifty five Muslim countries in the world. The geographical areas of these Muslim countries vary from small size, such as Maldives (298 square kilometers) to Sudan (2, 505, 813 square kilometers). The population, values of currency, GNP per capita in US dollar, import and export scenarios also greatly different. The Muslim countries today are faced with an acute shortage of food in quantity as well as quality. These Muslim countries presently are the largest food and recipients and the commercial food buyers in the world. A large part of the food consumed in the Muslim world is imported from outside, despite the fact that it has great potential for food production. In fact, 35 out of 55 Muslim States of the OIC, which face serious food shortage pay a bill of almost several million dollars annually for their food imports. Not only the current levels of food production are inadequate, but the food gap is also increasing rapidly, which is evident from the fact that the population is increasing at the rate of 3%, while the food production is increasing only by 2.5% annually. The Muslim countries now must tackle their food and agriculture problems urgently through the collective, concrete, and sustained efforts by pooling their intellectual and physical resources of men and materials to solve this diverse, difficult and labour intensive problems for itself and for other sister Muslim countries.
Unfortunately, one of the factors, which has impeded the proper planning and the development in the Muslim countries is the lack of relevant information on the need and requirements of different sectors for the economy of the country. A short description about agriculture of the Muslim countries are given below:
Afghanistan: Afghanistan is a mountainous, completely landlocked country of Central Asia. The nearest coast is lying along the Arabia Sea, about 300 miles to the South. Afghanistan has a total area of 65,209 thousand hectares (or 647,497 sq. kilometers). Most of Afghanistan lies between 2,000 and 10,000 ft in elevation. The country has an arable land of 7910 x 103 hectares. The major crop production is of wheat, while others are barley, rice, maize, pulses, cotton, sugarcane, sugar beet, oil seeds, water melon, potato, grape plum and apricot. Kabul is the capital and other important cities are, Jalalabad, Qandahar, Herat, Mazar-e-Sharif, Feyzabad, etc.
Algeria: The total geographical area of Algeria is 238174 x 103 hectares (or 2,381,741 sq. kilometers). It is the second biggest Muslim country after Sudan. It has 7540 x 103 hectares arable land. Agricultural production is carried out in the northern region. The crop which are grown in Algeria are wheat, barley, maize, broad bean, lentil, chickpea, sugar beet, tomato, eggplant, onion, potato, water melon and tobacco, citrus, apple, grape, olive, date palm. Algiers is the capital with other cities are Oran.
Azarbaijan: Azarbaijan borders Iraq and Turkey on the west-north west and the U.S.S.R on the north and covers an area of 15,141 sq. miles 25,910 sq. km. Agriculture, the main stay of the economy, is concentrated in the fertile basin of the country, and barley, wheat, rice, potatoes, sugar beets, walnuts, almonds fruits, and vegetables are grown. Livestock, including sheep and goats is raised. Industries include sugar mills. Baku is the capital, other important cities are Makee, Salmas, Marand, Sarab etc.
Bahrain: Bahrain is the second smallest country of the Muslim world. The area of Bahrain is 68 x 103 hectares (or 662 sq. kilometers). Bahrain is a semi-desert island with annual rainfall less than 100 mm/year. The country has 2.5 x 103 cropped land. The main crops are, date palm (50 %), vegetables and forages. Al-Manama is the capital and other cities are Al Hadd, Al Muharraq.
Bangladesh: Bangladesh is located in the delta of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers in the north eastern part of the Indian continent. Bangladesh has a total geographical area of 14,400 x 103 hectares (or 143,994 sq. kilometers), of which 13391 x 103 hectares is the land area. It is considered as one of the most density populated areas in the world. The arable land is 8895 x 103 hectares. It has forest area of 2115 x 103 hectares. It receives heavy rainfall exceeding 60 inches (or 1,500 mm) annually. Storms are very common with speed of more than 100 miles per hour. Bangladesh is a net food importer country. Some crops produce are rice, wheat, jute, pulses, cotton, sugarcane, tobacco, oil seeds, tomato, onion, potato, mango, pine apple, banana, water melon. Dhaka is the capital and other cities are Chittagong, Khulna, Mysmensingh, Bogra, etc.
Benin: The total area of Benin is 11,262 x 103 hectares (or 112622 sq. kilometers), with arable land of 1790 x 103 hectares. Among the crops, maize is the most important cereal, others are millet, sorghum, rice, beans, cotton, tobacco, sweet potato, cassava, yams, mango, pine apple, bananas etc. Bargou is the capital, other cities are Atakora, Porte Cotonou Novo.
Brunei Dar-es-Salam: Brunei Dar-es-Salam is a small Islamic Sultanate situated on the north coast of Borneo. It has the highest living standard in the South East Asia. The country has area of 527 x 103 hectares (or 5,800 sq. kilometers). The country has arable area of 3 x 103 hectares. About 75% of the country is covered with tropical rain forests. Rainfall is heavy (about 5,000 mm). Major crops are rice, fruits (pine apple, bananas), all vegetables and cassava. Bandar Seri Beguwan is the capital, other important cities are Muara, Victoria, Badas etc.
Burkina Faso: The total area of Burkina Faso is 27,420 x 103 hectares (or 274,200 sq. kilometers). The cropped area is 6.7 million hectares. Sorghum is the most important and widely cultivated cereal followed by millet and maize.
Cameroon: The total land area of Cameroon is 47,544 x 103 hectares (or 475,442 sq. kilometers). Cameroon is situated on the mid-western Africa. The potentially cultivable land in Cameroon is 31.5 million hectare. Millet and maize are the most important staple crops, and together occupy about 90 % of the area cropped to cereals. Rice is also an important crop. Cassava is the main starch crop followed by yams. Sweet potato is widely cultivated. Dry beans is the most common of the pulse crops and occupies about 75 % of the area cropped to pulses. The main oil-seed crop is groundnuts but others e.g., sesame, seed cotton are also grown. Other tree crops are mango, coconut, oil palm, avocado, banana, plantain tea, coffee and cocoa. Yaounde is the capital of Cameroon. Other cities are Douala, Foumban, Ekona, Maroua, Bamenda etc. Cameroon is now world Olympic champion in football.
Chad: The total area of Chad is 128,4 x 105 hectares (or 1248 x 103 sq. kilometers). The cultivable land is about 3205 x 103 hectares. The cereals occupied 72 per cent of the total cropped area with millet being the major crop. Industrial crops like sugarcane and cotton are important crops. Other crops are maize, rice, dry beans, onions, potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava and yams. N’djamena is the capital. It was an Italian colony in Africa.
Comoros: The Comoros comprises of four major islands, Grand Comoros, Anjounan, Mayatte and Moheli. These cover an area of 223 x 103 hectares (or 2171 sq. kilometers). All the four islands of Comoros are mountainous and have a tropical climate. The total arable land area in Comoros is 97 x 103 hectares. The major crops cultivated in the country are rice, maize, cassava, bananas, fruits and vegetables.
Djibouti: The total area of Djibouti is 2200 thousand hectares (23,000 square kilometers). The total cultivable area is only 0.3 x 103 hectare with permanent pasture having 244 x 103 hectares and wood land of 5 x 103 hectares. Agricultural soils are quite rare, because of lack of water. Djibouti imports all food and agriculture commodities except red meat and fish. The country is self sufficient in fish and produces about 90 per cent of the total consumption of red meat. The country has livestock head of about one million heads of which 50,45 and 5 per cent are goats, sheep and cows, respectively. Livestocks are raised traditionally on pasture. Djibouti is the capital city.
Egypt: The total land area of Egypt comes to 100145 x 103 hectares (1,001,449 square kilometers), which comes to 47 per cent of Saudi Arabia and 40 per cent of Sudan. The cultivable and permanent crops areas are 2540 x 103 hectares with forest 31 x 103 hectares (or 0.3%). The highest rainfall comes to an average of 200 mm/year. Egypt is on the whole a desert country. Egypt is among the few countries that cultivates all arable land available to it each year. The main crops which are grown in the country are: wheat, barley, maize, rice, broad bean, lentils, chickpeas, sugarcane, tomatoes, onions, potatoes, water melon and cotton. Oil seeds including cottonseed. Fruits like citrus, apples, grapes, bananas, date palm. Sufficient quantity of fish are also available in the country. Cairo is the capital city, other important cities are Alexandria, Aswan, Ain Shams, Suez canal, Zaqazeeqa, Tanta, Al-Munsura etc.
Gabon: The total area of Gabon is 26,767 x 103 hectares (or 267,663 square kilometers). The cultivable area is 427 x 103 hectares. Rainfall is excessive over the whole country. Roots and tubers especially cassava, constitute the most important staple crops in Garbon. Maize is virtually the only commercially cultivated cereal crops. Livestock production not sufficient in Gabon. Fruits like citrus, bananas, plantains.
Gambia: The total land area of Gambia is 1,13 x 104 hectares (or 11,295 square kilometers). The cultivable land is 152 x 103 hectares. Gambia is situated in the semi-arid with a single 3-4 month rainy season, preceded by a hot dry season. Agriculture is the dominant economic activity. It provides livelihood for 82% of the population and contributed about 13% of the GDP. Food crops occupy most of the cultivated land. Millet, rice and groundnuts are the most important crops and together occupy 85% of the total arable land cattle is the most important livestock. Sheep and goat are important parts of the total livestock population. The main agricultural exports are feeding stuffs, hides, skins and oil seeds, vegetable oils, and fish and fishery products. The list of agricultural imports include meat preparation, dairy products, eggs, cereals, fruits vegetables, sugar, fertilizer, pesticides etc.
Guinea: The total land area of Guinea is 24,586 hectares (or 255,657 square meters). The main soil associates are acid soils of tropical lowlands in most of the country and dark clay soils in the north. The country gets enough rainfall throughout the year. The irrigated area is 7 X 104 hectares i.e., about 4.4% of the total arable land. Guinea shares Senegal river water with Mali, Mauritania and Senegal and Gambia river water with Gambia and Senegal. Agricultural food production is very prominent in the country. Cereal and root crops occupy more than half of the cropped areas. Rice is the most important crop as far as acreage is concerned. Pulses and groundnuts are also important components of the farming pattern. Maize, sorghum, sweet potato, groundnuts, and tobacco are the important crops. Also are the cassava, yams, pulses, coffee and cocoa. Cattle is the most important livestock in the country. Sheep and goats are also the important components of the animal wealth. The main exports of the country are cocoa, coffee, meat, skin, and hides and vegetable oil.
Guinea Bissau: The total area of Guinea Bissau is 3612 x 103 hectares (or 36,125 square kilometers). The cultivated area of the country is 285 x 103 hectares. Like Guinea, Guinea Bissau is situated at the northern fringes of the humid and sub-humid West Africa. The main soil associations are dark clay soils. Agriculture in Guinea Bissau is predominantly rainfall and the country receives adequate rains for a long period. Coarse grains and rice are the most important annual crops and occupy about 78% of the total cultivated areas. Cattle is the most important livestock in Guinea. It is a multipurpose animal used for work and milk and meat production. Exports of the country include vegetable oils, fisheries and fruits. Bissau is the capital, other cities are Bolama, Bafata, Mansaba, Cacheu etc.
Indonesia: Indonesia comprises on 13,667 islands, more than 7600 of which are unnamed and almost 12,700 of which are uninhibited. The area of the country is 181,157 hectares (or 1,904,569 square kilometers). Indonesia has a tropical climate characterized by heavy rainfall, high humidity, high temperature and low winds. There are some 220 active volcanoes and many hundreds are considered extinct. Indonesia’s almost half of the population is engaged in agriculture profession. Rice followed by maize and sorghum are the major cereals grown in Indonesia. Other crops are sugarcane, cotton, tobacco, dry beans, tomatoes, peppers, onions, cucumbers and vegetables. Fruits are citrus, mangoes, pine apples, bananas, papayas etc. Djakarta is the capital of the country. Other important cities are Bagor, Malang, Lembang.
Iran: Iran has a geographic area of 164 x 105 hectares (or 1648,000 square kilometers). Iran has a complex climate, ranging from sub-tropical to sub-polar. The total arable and permanent crop area in Iran cane to 14.8 million hectares. About 52 per cent of the cropped area are under irrigation. The main cereals grown in Iran are wheat, rice and barley. Maize, sorghum, millet, potatoes, bean, sugar beet, sugarcane, cotton, tobacco, tomatoes and onions are of minor importance and have occupied only 8 per cent of the area cropped by cereals. Iran has remained a major net importers of food and agriculture commodities among the Muslim countries. Tehran is the capital of Iran. Other important cities are Isfahan, Karaj, Dezful, Shiraz, Abadan, Mashhed, Tabriz etc.
Iraq: Iraq has a total area of 43832 x 103 hectares (or 434,924 square kilometers), which is almost five times the size of Jordan. The only inland water body within Iraq borders other than dams is the Shat Al-Arab water way in the South of the country. The total cropped areas are 5450 x 103 hectares. Iraq has a range of agro-climatic regions that extend from very arid (desert) in the south to humid conditions in the north. Agricultural production is quite limited in the far north, because of the mountainous nature of the high rainfall regions. The land located between the Tigris and Euphrates are cultivated under irrigation.
The parent rock of Iraqi soils is similar to that of Syria, Jordan and Southern Turkey. Rainfall is very little. Cultivation is done through irrigation. The main food production in Iraq are wheat, barley, maize, rice, pulses, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, oil seed crop, tomatoes, onions, potatoes. Fruits such as dates, citrus, apples, grapes, pomegranate. Baghdad is the capital of Iraq. Other towns are Mosul, Basrah, Kirkuk, Karbala.
Jordan: Jordan has total area of 8921 x 103 hectares (or 97,740 square kilometers). The cultivated areas is 414 x 103 hectares. Water is the most important limiting factor in the dis-tribution of agro-climatic regions in the country. About 82 per cent of the total area is considered desert receiving less than 100 mm of rainfall per year. The main crops grown in the country are wheat, barley, legumes, lentils, chick pea, olives, citrus, apples, bana-nas, grapes, vegetables, water melon. Amman is the capital of the country. Other cities are, Zarqa, Aqaba.
Kuwait: The total area of Kuwait comes to 1782 x 103 hectares (or 17,818 square kilometers), which half times the size of Qatar. The cropped area is only 4 x 103 hectares. The country is arid, semi-desert. Rainfall is erratic and comes to about 150 mm. Very little foods are produced in the country. Barley is the main crop. Tomatoes, onions, potatoes, water melon are main vegetables, date palm is also common. Kuwait is a net importer of all food and agricultural commodities. Kuwait city is the capital. Other cities are Ahmadi, Abdali, Mena etc.
Lebanon: The total area of Lebanon is 1040 x 103 hectares (or 10,400 square- kilometers). The total cultivable area is 301 X 103 hectares. Rainfall is very common in the country. Lebanon has 17 rivers. The land is fertile. The main crops in the country are wheat, barley, lentils, chickpea, tobacco, tomatoes, onions, sugar beet, potatoes, water melons. Among fruits, grapes, apples and citrus are common.
Libya: The total area of Libya is 175954 x 103 hectares (or about 1,759,590 square kilometers), which is a little more (3%) than the total size of the four North African countries Egypt, Morocco, Mauritania and Tunisia and the fifth largest Muslim country of the Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Indonesia. Libya does not have any inland water body. Libya is primarily a desert country with 95 per cent of its total area is classified as desert or semi-desert. The total cultivable area is about 2145 x 103 hectares. Higher rainfall areas are in the north, extending along the Mediterranean coast. Soils of agricultural potential are scattered in several parts of the country, but majority occurs in the semi-arid region near the coast. Good agricultural soils cover a total area of 3.2 million hectares (or 1.8 % of the country’s area). Rainfall is not sufficient, it is scattered. About 36 dams have been constructed to store rain water for the irrigation of agricultural crops. Libya is one of the arid countries, which depends on ground water as the major course of water, which is utilized for all purposes. The main crops which are grown are, wheat, barley, broad bean, tomatoes, onions, potatoes, water melon. Fruits grown are grapes, apples, citrus. Major food imports of Libya in order of their value are red meat, wheat, milk, edible oils, sugar and rice. Libya does not export any food or agricultural commodity. Tripoli is the capital. Other big cities are Benghazi.
Malaysia: Malaysia has total land area of 32,855 x 103 hectares (or 329,749 square kilometers). The climate of Malaysia is equatorial, characterized by fairly high, but major temperature, high humidity, and copious rainfall (nearly 2540 mm annually). Four-fifth of Malaysia is covered by forests and swamp. Palm oil as well as tropical fruit trees are the main economic crop production. Rice, sugarcane and vegetables, are also grown. Among fruits, pineapples and bananas are largely grown. Palm oil, cocoa, bean, tea, oil cake meal, pine apple. The country imports a variety of food commodities which are in order of their value, maize, sugar, red meat, dry milk and milk products; wheat, rice and vegetables. Kuala Lumpur is the capital of Malaysia. Other cities are Selangor, Malacca.
Maldives: The Maldives islands are an archipelago in the Indian Ocean with an area of 30,000 hectares (or 298 square kilometers). Maldives is the second smallest country in Asia and consists of 1,087 islands in 19 atolls, of which only about 200 islands are inhibited. The cultivable area of the country is 3 x 103 hectares. All of the islands are small and very tiny from banks to real islets, none exceeding 5 square miles (13 square kilometers) in area. The Maldives equatorial climate is hot and humid, with a mean temperature of about 81°F. The soils of the country are fertile. Food production in the Maldives is quite small. Some food crops grown are maize, sorghum, millet. A variety of fruits and vegetables are grown in the country. Most of the food for small population is imported. Major imports include rice, wheat, sugar, pulses and meat.
Mali: The total area of Mali is 124,019 x 103 hectares (or 1,24 x 104 square kilometers). The cultivable area of the country is 2050 x 103 hectares. Mali is a large oblong country extending from north to south into a number of climatic zones. Agriculture is predominantly is rainfall. Niger river is also a source of water. Millet is the most important staple food crop and is widely grown. Rice and maize are the other important crops. Cattle is the most important livestock in the country. Mali is among the very few African countries, which exports more food and agricultural commodities than it imports. The main food and agriculture exports include live animals, hides, skin, textile, fibers, oil seeds, fruits and vegetable oils. The main imports include meat and meat preparation during products, eggs, sugar and oils. Bamako is the capital of Mali.
Mauritania: The total area of the country is 102552 x 103 hectares (or 1,030,700 sq km). The arable land is 208 x 103 hectares. Forest comprises of 15% of the total area. The majority of the country is considered as semi- desert and desert. About 95% of the cereal area is cropped with sorghum and millet. Mauritania is the only country in the Arab region whose exports exceed imports of food and agriculture commodities. Fisheries are the main export item. The imports items are mainly wheat followed by sugar, edible oils, rice and vegetables. Nouak-chott is the capital of the country.
Morocco: The total area of Morocco is 44655 x 103 hectares (or 446,550 square kilometers). Morocco has a diverse set of agro-climate regions that range from humid to desert. Agricultural soils are located mainly in the western parts of the country. For irrigation purposes at least 32 dams were built by 1985. The main crops grown in the countries are wheat, barley, maize, rice, beans, lentils, chick peas, sugar beet, sugarcane, cotton, to- matoes, onions, potatoes, egg plants, water melons. Among fruits grapes, apples, citrus, olives, date palm. Rabat is the capital. Other cities are Casablanca, Fez, Agadir, Tangir.
Niger: The total area of Niger is 126,7 x 105 hectares (or 1,267 x 103 square kilometers). The arable area is 3150 x 103 hectares. The potentially cultivable land in the Niger is 11.8 mha. Millet and sorghum are the main arable crops and together occupy 99 % of the area cropped to cereals. Other crops grown are maize, rice, sugarcane, tomatoes, onions, potatoes, cotton, tobacco, sweet potatoes, cassava and among fruits date palm. Niamey is the capital. Other cities are Tarna, Kolo, Agadez, Tillabery and Grabougoura.
Nigeria: The total land area of Nigeria is 92,377 x 103 hectares (or 923,766 square kilometers). Nigeria falls in the humid and sub-humid west African region, where the average rainfall ranges from 1200 to 1500 mm. The main soil associates in Nigeria is ferruginous tropical soils in the north and west and acid soils of tropical lowlands and tropical highlands in the south and east. The country is predominantly rain-fed with excessive precipitation and length of growing period extending from 180 days to almost the whole year round. Nigeria has high potential for irrigation water from river Niger and its tributaries Chad lake and other. The area of arable and permanent crop and is reported to come to 31.1 million hectares only sixty per cent was cropped each year in the year 1987. The crop production in Nigeria is sizeable. About 50 per cent of arable land has been allocated to cereals each year. The production of maize, sorghum, millet, rice and sugarcane. Tomatoes, onions, peppers, potatoes, cotton, tobacco and sweet potatoes. Cattle is the most important livestock in Nigeria. Sheep and goats are also common and important components of the animal wealth. There is also a large stock of pigs. The main agricultural exports of Nigeria are sugar (which alone accounts for 93.6 % of agricultural exports). Lagos is the capital of Nigeria. Other cities are Ibandan, Kaduna, Maiduguri, Benin city, Kano, Umudika, and Port Harcourt.
Oman: The total area of Oman is 21246 x 103 hectares (or 212,457 square kilometers), which is about twice the size of the other gulf states. Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and United Arab Emirates. The country is totally under the semi-seasonal climate with rains falling in two patterns, seasonal rains from the Indian ocean. Agricultural production is possible only under irrigation. Rainfall is not enough. In agricultural production, about 76 and 20 per cent are cereals and vegetables, respectively. More than 50 per cent of the value of food and agriculture commodities produced in the country come from marine resources. Oman has been a traditional exporter of fish. Among fruits citrus, bananas and date palm are common. The country imports almost all of cereals (main diet is rice), all consumed sugar, edible oils and pulses, milk, red meat. Muscat is the capital of Oman.
Pakistan: Pakistan offers varieties in its landscape from the breath-taking beauty of the high mountains ranges of the North to the colourful inter mountain valleys, rich irrigated plains, stark deserts and rugged plateaus of Balochistan. Pakistan has a total geographical area of 7,96,096 x 103 hectares (or 803943 square kilometers). The reported and the average cultivated area is placed at 77,088 and 20,760 x 103 hectares, respectively. Pakistan is a tropical and semi-arid country. There is a great variation in soil types of the country. The soils of valleys and plains, which constitute country’s major agricultural areas are alluvia. The alluvial soils are deep, fertile and generally permeable, but have slow underground drainage. Calcium carbonate is present in abundant amount. The total water supply available in Pakistan is met from three main sources: rainfall, surface water and groundwater. The mean annual rainfall varies from less than 100 mm in the Sindh to more than 750 mm in the toot-hills and northern mountains. About 60% of the rainfall comes during the monsoon season (July to September). The total cultivable crop area is about 21 million hectares. Out of this about 16.0 million hectares or 75% is irrigated through canals, 19% through rain-fed and rest by tube-wells and other sources. Pakistan’s agriculture contributes over 25 per cent of the national income, provides employment to 55 per cent of the total labour force and three-fourth of the country exports. Crop production accounts for about 70% of the value of agriculture product in Pakistan country. It is vitally important both in providing domestic food and fibre supplies and serving as a major source of foreign exchange earnings through export to both raw materials and processed crop commodities. The country produces wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane, maize and other cereal in sufficient quantities. Wheat is the leading foodgrain in Pakistan. Now the wheat production has reached to over 21 million tons annually. Rice is the second most important foodgrain. It requires irrigation and is grown as a Kharif crop. Maize is mostly grown in Kharif season. Cotton is an important cash crop of the country. It is exported in sufficient quantity. Other crops of food products millet, sorghum, soybean, dry beans, chickpeas, tomatoes, pepper, tobacco. The important fruits are date palm, apples, citrus, mangoes, bananas. The production of all major food commodities in Pakistan have shown as upward trend, but the increase was most significant in the case of poultry meat, fruits, eggs, red meat and vegetables. Pulses also showed substantial increase in production. Pakistan’s major imports of food commodities include edible oils, sugar, tea, dry milk and pulses. The country however, is a major exporter of rice and cotton and other exports include fruits and some vegetables. Pakistan has extensive systems of science and technology institutes, that serve agriculture in the country. Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan. Other important cities are Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Faisalabad, Multan, Hyderabad etc.
Palestine: Palestine under Muslim control is comprised of West Bank and Gaza strip. The area of these two locations comes to 575 x 103 hectares of which Gaza strip makes only about 7 percent. The area of these two parts are about 22.5 per cent of the total area of Palestine (2590 x 103 hectares). At present the total area under cultivation is about 130 x 103 hectares. Palestine has great similarities in its agro-climatic regions with Lebanon, Syria and Jordan. The whole region has typical Mediterranean climate. Rainfall in Palestine decreases from west to east and from north to south. Gaza strip lies in the arid region, while the majority of the West Bank is of a semi-arid agro-climatic type. The soils of Palestine are very much similar to those in Lebanon, Syria and Jordan. Fruits are the main produce both of West Bank, and Gaza strip. About 55 per cent of the cropped area has been allocated to fruit tree production. The main tree crops of Gaza are citrus and date palm. The orchards in West Bank include olives, stone fruits, grapes, apples and citrus. Traditionally, the West Bank and Gaza Strip are known to be net exporters of fruits, olive oil and vegetables. A large share of (75%) of cereals consumed are known to be imported and all rice and sugar are imported.
Qatar: Qatar is among the smallest countries in size with an area of 1110 x 103 hectares (or 11,000 square kilometers). Agricultural resources are also among the smallest of all Muslim countries, because of the semi-desert and desert conditions. Areas in which crop production is practiced are usually low lands with alluvial soils and ground water resources. Rainfall arrange in about 100 mm/year. Agricultural soils are sandy with same clay because of its alluvial nature. Ground water resources are normally brackish. Only 3.4 thousand hectares are cropped each year. Some cereals are grow in the country Qatar is a net importer of all food and agricultural commodities. The country imports all its consumed quantities of rice, maize, sugar, pulses and edible oils. The country has imported 99 per cent of cereals consumed and more than 75 per cent of consumed quantities of red meat, milk, white meat, fruits and eggs. About 45 per cent of vegetables and fish consumption are also imported. Water remains the limiting factor of crop and livestock production in the country. Doha s the capital of Qatar.
Saudi Arabia: The land of Saudi Arabia is about 2149 x 103 hectares (or 2,149,690 square kilometers) with no land water bodies. The area of Saudi Arabia constitutes 72 per cent of the total area of Arabian Peninsula and surpasses the area of all Arab countries east of the Red sea and Sinai by 33 per cent. Saudi Arabia is mainly a desert country with about 97% of the area classified as arid, semi-arid and real desert. The arable and permanent crops are grown on area of 1180 x 103 hectares. Agricultural production is practiced in about 10 major area of Tabouk, Kaseem, Kharj, Daman, Huffot and other areas of country. Rainfall occurs mainly in the fall and spring months with much loss amounts in the winter. Saudi Arabia has launched an excessive plan of dam construction. Thus so far a total of 205 dams have been constructed either to stone water for irrigation or accumulate water for groundwater recharge. The country has planned to construct more dams in recent year. All the resources available to Saudi Arabia are utilized for the production of food commodities. Cereal crops, forage, vegetables and fruit trees are grown in different areas of the country. Saudi Arabia has become self-sufficient in wheat and exported some to Arab countries. Barley, oil seeds, tomatoes, onions, potatoes, eggplants and watermelon are grown. Fruits such as citrus, apples and date palm are very common. Saudi Arabia imports sugar, rice, edible oils, pulses and maize. She also imports white meat, red meat, milk products. Riyadh is the capital. Other important countries cities are: Makka Sharif, Medina-ul-Munawara, Taif, Jeddah, Dahran, Daman, Tabouk.
Senegal: The total area of Senegal is 19,67 x 103 hectares (or 196,192 square kilometers). Soils of the country are generally desert soil. Agriculture is predominantly rainfall. Millet is evidently the most important cereal and most widely cultivated crop. Groundnut follows in importance and is an export commodity. Rice and maize are the two other cereals of significance in the country. Cotton is becoming increasingly important both under rain-fed and irrigated agriculture. Among the permanent crops, oil palm, coconut, oranges, bananas and, mangoes are of importance. The yield per unit area of millet, ground nut and cotton are close to world average. Maize, rice, cassava and pulses are considerably lower than world average. The yield of sugarcane is much higher than world average. Livestock production in Senegal is affected due to drought. The main agricultural products exported by Senegal feedings tuffs, textile fibres and vegetable oils, which together represents 90 % of the total exported products. The main imports are live animals, dairy products, cereals, coffee, tea and cocoa, fruits, vegetable, forest products and agricultural items. Dakar is the capital of Senegal.
Sierra Leone: The total area of Sierra Leone is 7,174 x 103 hectares (or 71,740 square kilometers). The country is situated in the humid west Africa. The soils are acidic in nature. The country receives excessive precipitation. Rice is eventually the most important and widely cultivated crop. It occupies about 88 % of the area cropped to cereals. Cassava is the most important root crop. Pulses and oil seed crops are also grown: coffee, cocoa, oil palm are the important export crops. Cattle is the most livestock in the country. Sierra Leone is a net importer of food and agricultural products, and there are live animals, cereals, sugar and vegetable oils.
Somalia: The total area of Somalia is 63766 x 103 hectares (or 637,657 square kilometers). Agricultural soils are distributed around watercourses throughout the country. Sorghum is the main crop of the country, which occupies about 70% of the cropped area. Other crops are maize, rice, sugarcane, cotton, citrus and bananas. Imports are higher than exports: Mogadisho is the capital of the country.
Sudan: The total area of Sudan comes to 250581 x 103 hectares (or 2,505,813 square kilometers). It is largest Muslim country in term of area Sudan has a diverse range of agroclimatic regions. Sudan has both sandy and alluvial soils. Sudan shares water Blue Nile and White Nile. The crops grown in Sudan are wheat, sorghum, maize, rice, pulses, sugarcane, vegetable, fruits (date palm, citrus, bananas etc). Sudan exports cotton, groundnuts, sesame, red meat and imports wheat, rice and pulses. Khartoum is the capital of Sudan.
Syria: The total area of Syria comes to 18518 x 103 hectares (or 185,180 square kilometers), which almost two times the size of Jordan. Syria is situated in the Mediterranean climatic region. Rainfall in the country varies greatly and covers a range of above 1000 mm in the western coast to less than 100 mm/year in the eastern parts of the country. Syria has many dams for irrigation of agricultural lands. Agriculture in Syria is quite reasonable. The country produces wheat, barley, lentils, chickpeas, sugar-beet, cotton, tomatoes, onions, eggplants, potatoes, apples, citrus, grapes, olives. Two major exports of Syria are cotton and pulses, some fruits and vegetables. The major imports are rice, sugar, maize, milk and vegetable oils. Syria has two major research institutions i.e., Arab Centre for Semi-Arid and Arid Development (ACSAO) and located in Douma near Damascus and another International Centre of Agricultural Research in the Dry Area (ICARDA) located in Allepo. Damascus is the capital of Syria. Other important cities are Latakia, Aba Kemal, Hama Kassab, Cobanbey, Dara, Allepo.
Tunisia: The total area of Tunisia comes to 16361 x 103 hectares (or 163,610 square kilometers). Tunisia has climates of humid, semi-humid, semi-arid, arid and semi-desert. Agricultural soils occupy an area of about 6.8 million hectares of which 1.8 million hectares are affected by salinity of variable degrees. Tunisia has over 15 dams for irrigation. Tunisia has cropped an average of 80 per cent of its arable lands of which 42 per cent (1520 x 103 hectares) were allocated to fruit trees including olive trees. Wheat, barley, pulses (lentils, chickpeas, broad beans), sugar-beet, tobacco, oil seeds crops vegetable (tomatoes, onions, potatoes) and fruits (apples, citrus, grapes, lives and date palm) are grown in the country. Tunisia’s major imports are wheat, red meat, milk, maize and sugar. Tunis is the capital of Tunisia.
Turkey: Turkey is the middle eastern region that lies both in Europe and Asia. About 3% of Turkey occupies the eastern most tip of southern Europe. The total geographical area of the country is 77,945 x 103 hectares (163,610 square kilometers). The land are in 76,963 x 103 hectares. Turkey’s climate is variable soils are also variable. There are many rivers in Turkey, having more than 40 useful dams. Turkey is a very developed country in agriculture among the Muslim world. The crops like wheat, barley, maize, rice, dry beans, lentils, chickpeas, sugar-beet, tomatoes, tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, onions, potatoes, cucumbers, watermelon, cotton and tobacco are grown. Turkey is a major exporter of wheat, fruits, pulses, vegetable, red meat and nuts. It imports rice, sugar, edible oils and dried milk. Ankara is the capital of Turkey. Other important cities are: Adana, Antalya, Istanbul, Izmir.
Uganda: The total area of Uganda is 23,588 x 103 hectares (or 236,036 square kilometers). Uganda falls within the moist sub-humid and mountain east Africa where the rainfall ranges between 1200 and 1500 mm annually. The soil associations are mainly acid soil of topical lowlands. Rainfall is sufficient to support agriculture in Uganda. Maize and millet are the most important cereal crop and together constituted 75% of the cropped area. Tuber crops are also grown. Coffee is the most important tree crop. Cocoa and tea are also cultivated in limited areas of the country. Rice dry beans, chickpeas, sugarcane, tomatoes, onions, potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, cotton are also grown. Uganda exports coffee, tea and cocoa and imports. Sugar, animal, fats, forest product. Kampala is the capital of Uganda. Other important cities are Entebbe, Kwanda.
United Arab Emirates (UAE): The total area of UAE comes to 8360 x 103 hectares (or 83,600 square kilometers). It comprise of seven states. UAE lies in the arid-desert region with rainfall ranging from 60 to 110 mm/year. Vegetable production dominates the crops grown in UAE followed by dates and lastly citrus and other tropical fruit trees (citrus, date palm). UAE is net importer of all its food and agricultural commodities. It imports rice, sugar, edible oils, pulses, milk, white meat and red meat. Abu Dhabi is the capital of UAE.
Yemen (AR): The total area of the country is 195 x 105 hectares (or 195,000 square kilometers). The semi-desert and desert regions occupy the eastern and south-eastern parts of the country. The crops like wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, cotton, tobacco, oil seeds all vegetables, all fruits (grapes and date palm) are grown in the country. The consumption of population of the country depends imported food commodities. Sana is the capital.
Yemen (PDR): The total area of the country is 33297 x 103 hectares (or 332,968 square kilometers). Agricultural soils are the whole sandy with same salt. The crops grown in the country are wheat, maize, sorghum, cotton, tobacco, oil seed crops, all vegetables (onions, tomatoes, potatoes), fruits (bananas, date palm). Mostly imports food commodities. Aden is the capital city.
Some of the countries, which got independence after the break-up of Russia are members of OIC and these are Azarbijan, Kazakhstan, Uzbek-istan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan.