ECONOMY WATCH

.

.
Selected by Zeeshan Ahmed Khan

Sep 12 - 18, 2005
.

 

MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (PART-1)

After Second World War, the entire world was completely changed. Almost all the nations felt the need of global integration for the prosperity of human beings. The result of this thought came out in the form of United Nations and a new era of global cooperation began.

On September 18, 2000, 189 countries signed a declaration known as Millennium Declaration to fight against global poverty and to support worldwide development. The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) is a global agenda came from this millennium declaration. The MDG provides guideline and framework to cope with basic mankind problems and to enhance living standards worldwide. The MDG contains eight basic goals to be achieved by the year 2015.

In this article, I will discuss the implementation of global agenda, its pros and cons and the chances of meeting these goals, specifically from Pakistan's point of view. The recent global monitoring report, issued by the World Bank, reveals detailed facts in this regard. The abstract of the report says that there are combined responses over MDG, some countries (especially South Asian countries) are taking it very seriously while few (Sub Saharan African) countries are not consistent with MDG and hence, are not likely to achieve these goals. The South Asian countries focusing very keenly on "poverty reduction strategies" are continuously reviewing the outcome of poverty reduction policies which make it possible for them to achieve targets set by MDG.

To increase the momentum of development and achieving MDGs, global monitoring report has presented five points agenda:

Anchor efforts to achieve the MDGs in country-led development strategies

Every country should focus on MDG and sets short-term and medium-term targets in its fiscal framework and should start a poverty reduction program.

Improve the environment for stronger, private sector-led economic growth

Countries should focus on private sector encouragement policies by removing unnecessary regulatory constraints. Governments should try to take corruption rate to minimum level.

SCALE UP HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES

Governments should increase the public sector development spending. It should be governments' priority to gradually increase number of doctors, teachers and other social services providers. The infrastructure should be developed and more hospitals, schools and technical schools should be built. A service delivery chain should be maintained to ensure that money produces results.

DISMANTLE BARRIERS TO TRADE

Augment assistance to poor countries to address behind-the-border constraints to their trade capacity, including through investments in critical trade-related infrastructure.

SUBSTANTIALLY INCREASE THE LEVEL AND EFFECTIVENESS OF AID

The developed countries have to double the official development assistance over the next 5 years to support MDGs, especially in Sub Saharan African countries. Reach closure in 2005 on current proposals for additional debt relief. Any additional debt relief should not cut into the provision of needed new financing, nor undermine the financial viability of international financial institutions.

THE GOALS

GOAL 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

TARGET 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day

TARGET 2: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

GOAL 2: Achieve universal primary education

TARGET 3: Ensure that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling

GOAL 3: Promote gender equality and empower women

TARGET 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and at all levels of education no later than 2015

GOAL 4: Reduce child mortality

TARGET 5: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate

GOAL 5: Improve maternal health

TARGET 6: Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio

GOAL 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases

TARGET 7: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS

TARGET 8: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases

GOAL 7: Ensure environmental sustainability

TARGET 9: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources

TARGET 10: Halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation

TARGET 11: Have achieved a significant improvement by 2020 in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers

GOAL 8: Develop a global partnership for development

TARGET 12: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, nondiscriminatory trading and financial system (including a commitment to good governance, development, and poverty reduction, nationally and internationally)

TARGET 13: Address the special needs of the least developed countries (including tariff- and quota-free access for exports of the least developed countries; enhanced debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous official development assistance for countries committed to reducing poverty)

TARGET 14: Address the special needs of landlocked countries and small island developing states (through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the 22nd special session of the General Assembly)

TARGET 15: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures to make debt sustainable in the long term

TARGET 16: In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth

TARGET 17: In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable, essential drugs in developing countries

TARGET 18: In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communication

Source: Global monitoring report 2005
(To be continued)