"History moves in a spiral; one returns to the
preceding position, but on a higher level, and by a corkscrew-like
We are again entering an era in which emphasis will
be on entrepreneurship. However, it not be an entrepreneurship of a
century ago, that is, the ability of a single man to organize a business
he himself could run, control, embrace. It will rather be the ability to
create and direct an organization for the new. We need men and women who
can build a new structure of entrepreneurship on the managerial
foundations laid these last eighty years. History, it has often been
observed, moves in a spiral; one returns to the preceding position, or
to the preceding problem, but on a higher level, and by a corkscrew-like
path. In this fashion we are going to return to entrepreneurship on a
path that led out from a lower level, that of the single entrepreneur,
to the manager, and now back, though upward, to entrepreneurship again.
The businessperson will have to acquire a number of new abilities, all
of them entrepreneurial in nature, but all of them to be exercised in
and through a managerial organization.
Establish an entrepreneurial culture in your organization.
The age of discontinuity
Controls should focus on results
"What today's organization needs are synthetic
sense organs for the outside."
Every social institution exists to contribute to
society, economy, and individual. In consequence results exist only on
the outside — in economy, in society, and with the customer. It is the
customer only who creates a profit. Everything inside a business creates
only costs, is only a "cost center." But results are
entrepreneurial. Yet we do not have adequate, let alone reliable,
information regarding the "outside". The century of patient
analysis of managerial, inside phenomena, events and data, the century
of patient, skillful work on the individual operations and tasks within
the business, has no counterpart with respect to the entrepreneurial
job. We can easily record and therefore quantify efficiency, that is,
efforts. It is of little value to have the most efficient engineering
department if it designs the wrong product. And it mattered little, I
dare say, during the period of IBM's great expansion in the 50's and
60's how "efficient" its operations were; its basic
entrepreneurial idea was the right, the effective one.
The outside, the area of results, is much less
accessible than the inside. The central problem of executives in the
large organizations is their insulation from the outside. What today's
organization therefore needs are synthetic sense organs for the outside.
If modern controls are to make a contribution, it would be, above all,
Develop a systematic method of collecting critical information on the
environment. The information should include knowledge of customer
satisfaction, non customer buying habits, technological developments,
competitors, and relevant government policies.
MANAGEMENT: TASKS, RESPONSIBILITIES, PRACTICES.
— Peter F. Drucker
"We are creating and using up ideas and images
at a faster and faster pace. Knowledge, like people, places, things and
organizational forms, is becoming disposable."
(Alvin Toffler, American scholar, lecturer and
"The role of front-line service delivery
personnel in the selling effort is crucial. In many companies they sale
service daily and can sell additional services, related services and
more of a service. Often, front-line service delivery personnel, being
at the lower-end of the pay scale, view their company's products and
services as beyond their own economic reach and thus show reluctance to
activity sell. Good training can give these employees the confidence to
proudly sell their company's products and services."
(Linda M. Lash, British Training and development
Counsellor and author)
"In a sense, knowledge shrinks as wisdom grows:
for details are swallowed up in principles. The details of knowledge
which are important will be picked up and hoc in each avocation of life,
but the habit of the utilization of well-understood principles is the
final possession of wisdom."
(A.N. Whitehead, 1861-1947, British Mathematician,
Philosopher, Professor of Philosophy at Harward University and author)
'In the course of the examination of ideas, decisions
will often emerge. It becomes increasingly obvious that and idea does
not offer sufficient benefits to take it further. Consensus opinions can
gradually emerge; this is how the Japanese makes decisions."
(Edward De Bono, Maltese-born British scholar,
teacher, lecturer and author)
"One barber shaves not so close but another
"A horse never runs so far as he has other
horses to catch up and outpace."
(Ovid, Roman poet. The Art of Love, c.AD 8)
"To succeed, you have to believe in something
with such a passion that it becomes a reality."
(Anita Roddick, British business woman, co-founder
and chief executive of The-Body Shop International)
"A leader is a dealer in hope."
(Napoleon, French soldier, statesman, and Emperor of