Dr. S.M. Alam
May 09 - 15, 2005



Pakistan a land of many splendorous and opportunities, the repository of an unique blend of history and culture from east and the west, the cradle of the ancient civilization which has developed around the Indus valley. It is the ninth most populous country of the world, with more than 150 million tough, diligent and hardworking people, which has entered the 21st century as an equal partner in the community of nations. Flanked by Iran and landlocked Afghanistan in the west, the central Asian Republics and China in the north and India in the south-east, Pakistan can boast of having a significant location advantage with a vast but only partially tapped, potential consumer market. It has one of the highest peaks of the world in the north and vast plains in the south, offer an unusual diversity of temperatures ranging from sub-zero level on the mountains in winter to scorching heat in the plains in summer. It provides friendly habitat to exquisite ranges of flora and fauna and a large variety of agricultural crops used for both food and raw material for industries and for exporting purposes.

Total Gross National Product (GNP) is US$ 97 billion and the total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is US$ 95 billion, while the GDP growth rate is 6.4 percent. The total export income is about $12. 27 billion which comes through exporting cotton, textiles, rice, leather items, sports goods, carpets, fruits, handicraft and sea-food. Similarly, the total import expenditure is about US$ 15.50 billion by importing industrial equipment, vehicles, iron ore, petroleum, edible oil etc. The country's per capita income is US$652.

The agriculture of Pakistan is exposed to a number of problems ranging from poor yields to marketability of commodities, water shortages to conservation, from grading to set world quality norms and from indiscriminate use of pesticides to biological control. The yields of major crops like cereal production has decreased due to variety of reasons. The most significant factors appear to be ecological changes and timely availability of the agricultural inputs including non-availability of high yielding and disease, insect and pest free elite stock of seed varieties in addition to scarcity of water fit for irrigation. In this context, the World Trade Organization (WTO) regime has become another critical challenge. Its implications on agriculture, undoubtedly, surpass all other threats confronted by other sectors of economy. It is now most necessary to take immediate and meaningful steps to deal with the short-term and long-term challenges of the WTO. According to WTO agreement on agriculture, it is mandatory for each country, to provide market access to international commodities and do away with domestic and export subsidies. Therefore, the government policies are required to be focused on the measures to control or minimize the cost of production to a sustainable level besides maintaining quality to enable entrepreneurs to compete in the international markets.

In the present day of agriculture, considerable diversification has occurred in the economy of Pakistan as this sector has been contributing about 6 percent to the national income. In fact, industrial, transport and communication and energy sectors have also expanded. Yet, agriculture remains the largest by contributing 23.3 percent to GDP and employing 48 percent of total labour force. Textile, sugar and many other industries mainly depend on this sector directly or indirectly for raw materials. It also happens to be the biggest source of foreign exchange earning by serving as a base for major industries. Pakistan is endowed with diverse climates, fertile land and one of the best canal irrigation systems of the world. Large varieties of crops are cultivated throughout the year, including wheat, rice, cotton and sugar cane which account for 91 percent of the value-added in major crops. Minor crops including oil seed, pulses and vegetables account for 12.4 percent of the value-added in overall agriculture. The sustainability of agriculture depends on the prudent use of natural resources and careful considerations of environment. Our natural resource base like land and water is under great stress by getting worse with the growing population. It is now necessary that cereal production should be increased by at least 40 percent over the next 25 years to meet needs for food, livestock feed and fiber crops. Similarly, production of all other major food products shall have to be increased to meet the subsequent demand. The per capita agricultural land continues to shrink and land resources are increasingly depleting. The continuing problem of salinity and deforestation have become a menace.

Pakistan like many developing countries of the world is faced with the problem of low agricultural productivity. In spite of the fact that our country is blessed with a galaxy of climate, soil condition and irrigation water. The country is totally dependent on agriculture for the supply of food and fiber. Therefore, it is imperative to increase food and fiber production to cope up not only with ever growing requirements of the country, but for the sake of foreign exchange earnings and to attain self-sufficiency. Rapid agricultural growth can stimulate and thus sustain the pace of industrial growth, thus setting into motion a mutually reinforcing process of sustained economic growth.

Apart from the sectors immediate economic contribution it also has indirect linkages with various parts of the economy. Any change in agricultural productivity, therefore, sends a ripple effect throughout the rural population of Pakistan. It provides food, feed and raw materials for major industries, such as textile, sugar and to several other medium and small scale industries which account for about 50 per cent of total value of industrial production.

The agriculture framework in Pakistan is supported to a great extent by a crop sector, with its percentage contribution to agriculture GDP exceeding that of other sectors. Pakistan's agriculture, with the advent of Green Revolution, has been one of the striking success stories of the post-independence era. The introduction of the Green Revolution, beginning with the rice and wheat revolutions in the late 1960s, and extending to several other crops including oilseeds in recent years, ushered in an era of food self-sufficiency and improved rural welfare of the country. The National Agricultural Research System in the country is at the forefront in guiding these technological breakthroughs.

In Pakistan, both the Federal and Provincial governments are involved in agricultural research. The Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock has the overall coordinating responsibility for agricultural research in the country. The Pakistan Agricultural Research Council is the apex body for agricultural research in the country, which has overall responsibility to support and coordinate agricultural research in the country. Other Federal Institutions involved in research work are ministries of Science and Technology, Water and Power, besides PAEC. Most of these organizations undertake their research activities independently with little coordination in programme planning or budget allocation. Agricultural research by the Provincial governments is scattered among many provincial departments including agriculture (crops), animal husbandry/livestock and fisheries. The maximum numbers of provincial research institutes related to agriculture are as in Punjab-39, Sindh-10, Balochistan-7 and NWFP-8. All these institutes in the provinces are purely deal with research work for the agricultural productivity of crops, livestock fisheries, forestry, poultry, reclamation of salt-affected lands, etc.

It has been noted that yields of crop in Pakistan are comparatively lower than those of agriculturally-advanced countries. The general problems associated with agriculture of this region are scarcity of water, floods, water logging, alkalinity, soil erosion, low yield per unit area, low yield per acre unit and traditional and old methods of cultivation, quality of inputs, pests and disease attacks. There is an immense need to bring an improvement by strengthening the research programmes for the best utilization of already existing resources. Research programmes should include evolution of high yielding varieties showing maximum potential for various climatic and soil conditions. New varieties may be evolved which should be fertilizer responsive, and can grow well under right moisture supply conditions and are resistant to pests and diseases. All these parameters determine that agriculture still have a predominant role in future to produce earnings to meet rapidly increasing local food demand and to increase foreign exchange earnings by commodity export. Researchers may make further effort to enhance protein contents of cereals and other edible crops so as to overcome the problem of protein deficiency as most of the people in country fall in average income groups of the population, who cannot afford to consume the much needed but costly animal proteins.

It has been noted that the fertility of good soil is decreasing day by day due to intensive cropping in order to fulfil the needs of rapidly growing population. To maintain the fertility status of soils in order to supply adequate nutrients for plants, application of different fertilizers is recommended by the agriculturist scientists. Like in many other parts of the world, salinity and water logging are the major constraints limiting crop production in Pakistan. Of the 22.2 mha of the total cultivable land, 6.32 mha are salt-affected. Soil salinity may be robbing Pakistan of about 25% of its potential production of major crops. A major part of salt-affected soils (about 3.5 mha) are presently cultivated to rice, wheat, cotton, sugarcane, rape seed and other crops with substantial reduction in yield. Water is a unique natural resource.

In Pakistan, conservation and management of water supplies is crucial as the demand for water continues to rise because of burgeoning population. As Pakistan's agriculture is predominantly irrigated, water is one of the most limiting constraint for agricultural production. Water shortage is a major factor impeding growth of the agricultural sector. Fluctuations in weather conditions, deficient in storage capacity and poor use of available water, culminate in water acting as a major constraint to agricultural growth. A substantial amount of water is also lost annually due to water management inefficiency. Water losses are estimated to be approximately 25 percent from the canal head to the outlet and another 15 percent from the outlet to the farm gate mainly due to poorly linked canals and water courses.

The most basic constraint in the development of agriculture in our country is inadequate irrigation supplies, widespread occurrence of water logging and salinity and low level of modern farm inputs. Inadequate water supplies have resulted in low cropping intensities and are moreover responsible for low yield. Pakistan is blessed by nature with fertile lands, network of rivers, sunshine, versatile climate, and vast potential of agricultural production. The country's major agricultural areas lie within the smooth plains formed naturally by mighty Indus River since time immemorial and its several tributaries such as Kabul, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej, which flow in southwardly directions, finally enter into a single stream and flowing into Arabian Sea near Karachi. However, due to mismanagement of water resources, inadequate drainage systems, poor performance of existing irrigation and drainage systems, the agricultural production is far below its potential. At present, only 16.5 million hectares are under canal irrigation being fed by Tarbella, Mangla and Chashma reservoirs, 22 barrages, 12 inter-river link canals and 48 main canals. Water available at the farm gate after accounting, farm losses and run offs has increased from 50 MAF in 1961-62 to 101 MAF in 1988-89. Estimates show that about 60 percent of water is lost during conveyance through canals distributions and water courses. Water available from tube wells through groundwater pumpage amounts to 46 MAF. So, the total water available for 22.5 mha land is 144 MAF of which 97 percent is used in agriculture and the remaining 3 percent for domestic and industrial purposes. Out of 144 MAF, around 106 MAF is annually diverted into one of the largest irrigation system.

Agricultural sector of Pakistan is usually divided into four main sub-sectors: crops, livestock and fisheries. The crop sector accounts for about 65 percent of agriculture share in the GDP. Blessed with abundantly available national resources and favourable climate, Pakistan stands as an ideal place for crop, animal, forestry and fish production. Of these, crop sector accounts 69 percent of agriculture's GDP, while livestock accounts for 30 percent. Forestry and fisheries make up less than 2 percent of the total. Agriculture is therefore, the leaching sector and backbone of our economy. There are about 65 large and small institutes and over 62 sub-stations, etc. in the country. All research activities undertaken today's in the country pertaining to agriculture are being carried out by both provinces, (numbering four) and federal government. The Federal government plays a defined role in policy making, inter-provincial coordination, and foreign trade of agriculture related materials. There are two growing seasons of crops in Pakistan: Kharif and Rabi. In Kharif season, mostly rice, cotton, sugarcane, maize, etc. crops are grown, while in Rabi, the crops like wheat and vegetables are grown. Other crops grown in the country are bajra, jawar, barley, tobacco, sugar beet, guar, pulses, rape seed, mustard, groundnut, linseed, castor seed, onion, garlic, chillies, turmeric, ginger, potato, tomato. At present, the production of cereal crops are: 27880 x 103 metric tonnes annually, while the domestic utilization of cereals are 25829 x 103 m. tonnes.


Wheat is a major and most important food crop and a staple food of almost all Pakistan's population and occupies a central and pivotal position among food grains of the country. On an average each household spends about 17 percent of its total food expenditure on wheat and wheat flour. It contributes 12.5 percent to the value-added in the agriculture sector of the economy and accounts for nearly 38 percent of the total cultivated area, 30 percent of the value-added by major crops and 76 percent of the total production of food grains. In fact, the most remarkable progress has been made in the improvement of wheat yields during the last few decades. Perhaps the most notable success was the development of short statured varieties, which under optimal conditions of fertility and water supply out yielded the tall traditional types. The availability of the irrigation water through canals mainly contribute to the growth and production of wheat. The average per acre yield of wheat is estimated between 20 and 25 mounds and above it needs an extra effort as well as natural supporting factors.

With the advent of 'Green Revolution', national wheat production has increased from 4 million tonnes in 1965-66 to over 7 million tonnes in 1968-69, making Pakistan the first developing country in Asia to achieve self-sufficiency in wheat production. During the last 40 years, the new wheat varieties have been regularly evolved by various wheat breeding programmes in the country. The Federal Committee on agriculture has estimated that the output of wheat crop is likely to touch 20.15 million tonnes, which will be sufficient to fulfill the country's requirement during 2004-2005. Pakistan stands within the ten wheat producing country in the world. Wheat is grown on an area of 83.25 million hectares with an average of 2290 kg/ha. However, the yield per hectare is low compared to other wheat producing countries of the world.

There is an urgent need to increase the yield of wheat per acre and that can be increased by the use of high yielding varieties, certified seed, fertilizers in right proportion, pesticides, adequate quantities of water, larger labour, input resulting in better tillage operations, and strictly following the crop calendar. This is only possible when the crop is properly planted, at an optimum time, with an insuring optimum stand, and the required tilling. In addition, when adequate moisture and plant nutrients to sustain vigorous growth are available and when there is no major loss due to weeds competition, disease attack or insect infestation. These factors are due to poor seed bed preparation, late sowing, quality of seed, inadequate and ill-time irrigation, fertilizer, weed competition, insect and disease control, cultural practices, harvesting losses.

NEED FOR ADDITIONAL STEPS: Increasing the yield per acre is vital if self-sufficiency in wheat is to attained. This can be done only by technological advancement and improved irrigation. Some important measures which could raise yield are: i) Plant breeders should be motivated to develop new high yielding wheat varieties especially those which are fit for late sowing; ii) Production and distribution of certified seed of the existing recommended varieties should be undertake earnestly on an emergency basis. This is crucial for sustaining momentum and deserves almost attention; iii) Wheat should be sown at proper time. Timely and adequate irrigation should be ensured. For this, the public representatives should be required to be in their respective areas at the time of sowing; iv) Fertilizer application in adequate quantities in right proportion and at the right time must be ensured; v) Farmers should be inspired to eliminate weeds from fields.

These measures, if implemented in earnest, could double the yield and make the country not only self-sufficient but also able to export wheat. The major area of wheat in Pakistan lies in Punjab followed by Sindh. However, the yield per hectare is slightly higher in Sindh as compared to Punjab. While, the area under the crop has increased by 3 percent in the Punjab and by 9.4 percent in the NWFP over the last year, it has decreased by as much as 25 percent in Sindh and by 55 percent in Balochistan. To become selfsufficient in wheat, Pakistan has all the required basic ingredients such as fertile land, sufficient irrigation water, hard working farmers, certified seed varieties of local and foreign-origin and modern technology in abundance, provided these are utilized to full potential, which is only possible, if there is a firm will on the part of the planners. This incentive encouraged farmers to apply sufficient amounts of DAP and urea to the field. Wheat price was raised from Rs240 to Rs300 for per 40 kg at the time of sowing the crop.

Last year, this timely measures help the farmers to increase wheat production. All this was the result of certain measures taken by the government as about 75 percent of wheat are sown in irrigated area and 25 percent in the rain-fed regions. The latest official estimates indicate that against the target of 19.25 million tonnes for the current year, the production of wheat is touching a record level of 21 million tonnes.




Rice is the second most important crop brings economic prosperity for the growers as well as earns billions of rupees through export. Pakistan fine rice commonly known as Basmati is world famous and enjoys monopoly in the international market, due to its quality characteristics, strong aroma, slender and long kernel, intermediate amylase content, gelatinization, temperature and high degree of grain elongation in cooking. However, the grain yield of basmati rice varieties is very low. In order to remain in the international market, we have to further improve the quality as well as yield of basmati varieties. Rice plays a pivotal role in the agro-based and occupies a conspicuous position in agricultural economy of Pakistan.

Rice occupies 11 percent of the country's cropped area and contributes about 17 percent on food grain production. Rice has been cultivated over an area of 2.51 million hectares (5.5 million acres) with a production of 5.1 m tonnes as estimated for the year 2003-2004. Punjab is the biggest producer of rice in the country and contributes 48 percent to national production. All rice is irrigated and mainly transplanted. On an average, each household in Pakistan spends about 3.8 percent of its total food expenditure on rice and rice flour. It is the second staple food and contributes more than 2 million tonnes to Pakistan's national food requirement. Besides, it is a source of foreign exchange earnings and in the year 2000-2002 about 2 million tonnes rice at worth Rs2.6 billion was exported. The contribution of basmati and coarse rice in rice exports was 54 and 46 percent respectively. After Thailand, Vietnam, United States and India, Pakistan is the fifth largest rice-exporting country in the world. Despite the prime position of rice in the national economy and world market, the average yields in Pakistan are discouragingly low being only 2.7 and 1.6 tonnes/ha in comparison with 3.92, 2.98, 6.58, 6.34 and 8.91 tons/ha of India, USA, China and Egypt.


Cotton and its produce is obtained in the shape of seed cotton and cotton lint. Cotton is the second most important cash crop of our country after wheat, in terms of area and value-addition. It is a creditable source of valuable foreign exchange for the country with an annual production of 9-10 million bales. Accounting for over sixty percent of Pakistan's foreign exchange earnings, cotton is the country's most vital economic asset. During 1991, Pakistan ranked third after China and the US, in production and was the first in cotton export. The highest yield achieved in Pakistan was 12.28 million bales in 1991-92. The cotton grown in the world is on 34369 x 103 hectares with the production of 2711 x 103 m. tonnes with an area yield of 574 kg/ha. Other major growing countries are India (87 x 105 ha production, 2711 x 103 m. tonnes and yield 312 kg/ha); USST (545 x 103 ha production, 397 x 104 m. tonnes and yield 729 kg/ha); China (50 x 106 ha production, 4 x 106 m. tonnes and yield 800 kg/ha); Pakistan (3253 x 103 ha production, 1859 x 103 m. tonnes and yield 572 kg/ha); Turkey (72 x 104 ha production, 798 x 103 m. tonnes and yield 1108 kg/ha); Egypt (374 x 105 ha production, 338 x 103 m. tonnes and yield 901 kg/ha); Australia (37 x 104 ha production, 577 x 103 m. tonnes and yield 1560 kg/ha); Syria (222 x 105 ha production, 227 x 103 m. tonnes and yield 1023 kg/ha).

The federal standing committee on cotton crop has estimated 10.7 million bales of cotton production for the year 2004-2005. cotton is known as the silver fiber of Pakistan. In Pakistan, cotton crop is cultivated in the southern Punjab and Sindh. It brings cash returns to the farmers, supplies raw materials to the textile industry and provides employment in both the rural and the urban areas. cotton is the major textile fiber used by man. It is also providing livelihood to over 5 million people at the farm and industry and trade, furnishes raw material for 1035 ginneries and 445 textile mills and 650 oil expelling units. Cotton is a major summer crop and planted in March/April in Sindh and picking is done in September and in upper Sindh and Punjab, sowing is carried out between May and June, while the picking period extends from October to January. Cotton picking is done entirely by women. The time of sowing is so adjusted that the young seedlings escape the early summer heat as much as possible. The climate of lower Sindh is milder than that of upper Sindh and the Punjab. It sown on nearly 3 million hectares, contributing 29 percent to the value-added by major crops, thus, is grown on about 12 percent of the cropped area which is higher than any other cash crop. Cotton in Pakistan is mostly grown on the alluvial plains of the Indus basin. Cotton is grown on loamy soil, and requires a minimum temperature of 25oC and a maximum of 35oC. Cotton needs 5-6 watering, 24 inches from flat fields and 16 for ridge cultivation and 6-7 pesticide sprays depending on the intensity of pest infestation. It competes directly with rice in those areas where both crops can be cultivated. Cotton in combination with winter crops also competes indirectly with sugarcane as the latter occupies land resources round the year. The yield of cotton in the Punjab which contributes nearly 82 percent in the total production ranged from 470 to 602 kg/hectare. A series of virus have significantly lowered the yield, although Pakistan's agricultural scientists have produced virus resistant seeds that have revived the crop.z


In Pakistan, sugarcane is grown in three soils and climate zones, the tropical Sindh, the sub-tropical Punjab and the temperate Peshawar valley of NWFP. It is cultivated successfully in tropical area between 25o N and 28o S latitude, mostly around the equator but nowadays it can also be grown well in sub-tropical areas, where summer temperatures favour this crop and irrigation facilities are available. Sugarcane is an important cash crop of Pakistan. It ranks fourth in average cultivation after wheat, rice and cotton. It is the mainstay of the sugar industry. Sugarcane and sugars are the important sources of income and offer employment to the farming community as well as the urban population of the country. Sugar industry of Pakistan is second to textiles. Sugarcane was cultivated on an area of over 1000 thousand hectares during the current fiscal year. In order to enable the country to be self-sufficient in sugar, a minimum area of 1.150 million hectares should remain under cane cultivation, which can produce 50.1 million tonnes at an average yield of 46 tonnes/ha as estimated for 2003-2004. It has been observed that area, production and yield per hectare of sugarcane has increased remarkably since the inception of Pakistan, but it is a matter of great concern, that yield per hectare and sugar recovery is very low as compared with other sugarcane growing countries of the world. In Pakistan, the yield of sugarcane is very low as compared to other sugarcane producing countries of the world. Variety is the pre-requisite and major requirement for crop improvement. Sugarcane growers are always interested in the cultivars that offer more tonnage, while miller is more conscious of quality.

At present, sugar industry consists of 78 units 32 in Sindh; 40 in the Punjab and 6 in NWFP. These mills crushed 29 million tonnes sugarcane and produced about 2.4 million tonnes of sugar. Sugar production in Sindh has been above one million tonnes with maximum at 1.374 million tonnes devoting a surplus of about half a million tonnes. Based on 160 days season, these sugar mills have a total crushing capacity of 60 million tonnes of sugarcane capable to produce 5 million tonnes of refined sugar and 3 million of molasses. It is grown on an area of 1.12 million hectares. The average production is 46 tonnes/hectare. The per capita consumption of sugar in the country is about 26 kg.


Despite the fact that Pakistan is overwhelming an agrarian economy, it is unable to produce edible oil sufficient for domestic requirements and substantial amount of foreign exchange is spent on the import of soybean and palm oil from foreign countries. Pakistan spent more than 450 USA dollars in the import of oil. The total requirement of edible oil which is estimated at 1.65 million tonnes. However, the domestic production of various types of edible oil is around 62 x 104 tonnes annually and therefore, the short fall of about 94 x 104 tonnes is met through imports of palms oil and soyabean oil. Per capita consumption of edible oil is 11 kg. Pakistan is facing a serious shortage of edible oil because of its domestic production, which is far below the demand. Edible oil in Pakistan is produced from cotton, rape seed, mustard, groundnut and sesamum, while sunflower, soysbean and safflower are recent past introductions.


The Pakistan National Research Council had established the National Tea Research Institute (NTRI) in 1970 to lead the country towards self-sufficiency in tea production and to reduce the import bill which stood at Rs15 billion annually. Sources said that despite favourable climate and availability of fertile land in different parts of NWFP and adjoining tribal areas 1.350 acres had been brought under tea cultivation during the last three decades. Figures showed Pakistan imports 150,000 tonnes of tea every year and its requirement will reach 170,000 tonnes by 2010. Besides a huge quantity of tea is smuggled from land and sea routes. Giving a breakdown of the cultivation area, official said that NTRI had cultivated tea over 360 acres, a private organization had brought 900 acres under cultivation and the NWFP government had carried out tea plantation over 100 acres in Mansehra and Swat districts.


Pakistan does not possess adequate forest resources since forest area constitutes a meager 4.8 percent (3.81 million hectares) of the total land area. A desired level of 22 to 25 percent is considered to be essential for economic growth of a country as suggested by the United Nations. The forest sector despite its small size makes its presence felt by employing half a million people, supporting 30 million herds of livestock, conserving soil, regulating water flow for irrigation and power generation, reducing sedimentation, maintaining ecological balance, providing 3.7 million cubic meters of wood and one third of the nations energy requirements. There is a great need for increasing forests to meet the growing requirement of firewood, timber, which provide vital coverage to the country's watersheds and regulate the supply of water in the rivers. Pakistan's forests are a valuable basic natural resource, which provides food, fodder, forage for cattle, fuel wood, timber wood for building and other materials, and medicinal plants. They provide shelter and protection and are a source of income and employment. Forests play a crucial role in the protection of the environment, provide oxygen to the air, we breath and influencing the climate. Forestry as it exists today in Pakistan is generally characterized by lack of adequate area under forests, very low per capita consumption of wood and use of out-dated forest technology in planting and harvesting operations.


Livestock is the second important sector of agriculture. While the share of agriculture in GDP declined from 26 in 1986-87 to 24 percent in 2003-04, the share of livestock went up from eight to 11.4 percent during the same year. In other words, the share of livestock in agriculture increased from 30 to 48 percent. Its foreign exchange earnings increased to Rs53 billion in 2003-04 which is 12.34 percent of the total national export earnings as compared to its share of 5.3 percent in 2001-02. Currently, by supporting agriculture, the livestock sector contributes about 49 percent to the GDP. Despite the negligence of livestock sector, its share in GDP and that of agriculture as well as export earnings increased. Within rural households, livestock activities generate additional income for households, in which nearly 35-40 million people in rural areas are involved in this sector. Production of poultry has also accelerated in recent years with almost every rural family and one in every five urban families being involved in poultry production activities. The most important livestock in the country are buffalo, cattle, sheep, goat, camel. Donkey, horse, cow, hare, ass, mule and poultry. Livestock provides draught power, manure to farming system and milk products to households. Livestock being one of the important sub-sectors of agriculture assume a pivotal position in the whole economic strategy of Pakistan. It covers about 38 percent of the agricultural value-added and in providing directly or indirectly employment to about 50 percent of the population and 8.3 percent to the gross domestic product (GDP). Besides, being a source of milk, beef, mutton, meet, and eggs, wool, hair, bone, fat and blood livestock provides draught power for agricultural operations and industrial raw materials.

Livestock is the major economic activity of small and landless farmers, tenants, sedentary, nomadic and transhumance herders for their survival. The major buffaloe breeds are Nili-Ravi and Kundi, while Sahiwal, and Red Sindhi are the dominant milk breeders. Of the draught cattle Bhagnari and Dajal are heavy breeds. Dhani and Lohani are medium, Rohani and Rojan are light breeds, while Thari is a dual breed both for milk and draught purposes. In the year 2004, the domestic livestock population is estimated is 24.8 million buffaloes, 23.3 million cattle, 24.6 million sheep, 52.8 million goats, 0.8 million camels, 0.32 million horses, 0.2 million mules, 4.0 million donkeys and poultry 184.6 million. For the year 2004, they produce 27611 x 103 tonnes milk, 1069 x 103 tonnes beef, 702 x 103 tonnes mutton, 372 x 103 tonnes poultry meat, 39.7 x 103 tonnes wool, 19.9 x 103 tonnes hair, 348.0 x 103 tonnes bones, 129 x 103 tonnes fats, 8,677 million eggs, 8.2 million hides, 40.2 million skins and 44.0 x 103 tonnes blood. It is evident from the above discussion that there was significant increase in livestock products such as milk, beef, mutton, poultry meat and eggs. But inspite of significant increase in milk production mostly due to increase in the number of buffaloes, cattle and milk breeds of goats and sheep, the import of milk and milk products increase from Rs226 million in 1978-79 to Rs770 million in 2002-2004.


Pakistan experiences different climatic conditions in its different regions, which provides it with a unique opportunity of growing fruits and vegetables all year round. Each region of Pakistan is growing particular kinds of fruits. The horticultural sector has the potential of contributing significantly to the income of farmers and export incomes of Pakistan. A different kind of fruits are grown in the country, i.e. citrus, mango, banana, apple, guava, apricot, peach, pears, plums, grapes, pomegranate, dates, almonds. Citrus is a prized fruit and holds number one position among all fruits both in production and export. The areas of all the fruits in Pakistan are: 872.4 x 103 hectares with a total production of 5891.7 x 103 tonnes, annually. The vegetables grown in the country are: lady finger, carrot, radish, onion, tomato, potato, garlic, cauliflower, brinjal, peas, beans, cucumber, turnip, pumpkin, green chillies, ball pepper, kakri, ginger, cabbage., spinach, kulfa.


The fishery sector contributes a small percentage to GDP but a large per cent to the export sector through its exports of shrimp and fish. According to the Economic Survey for 2003- 2004 , fisheries share in the country,s GDP, though very small, contributes substantially to the national income through export earnings.During the period July-March 2003-04, 101,256 tons valued at Rs.7.9 billion fish and fishery products were said to have been exported to Japan, the USA, UK, Germany, Middle East, Sri Lanka, China etc. thus, generating substantial amount of foreign exchange. Everybody knows that fish production is an important source of protein and income through export, and employment of the manpower. The total number of persons engaged in fisheries during 2003-04 is estimated at 395,000 persons ( 31.5 per cent) were engaged in the marine sector and 270,000 (68.4 per cent) in inland fisheries. Persons engaged in fisheries sector in 2002-03 numbered 365,000 -138,000 ( 37 per cent) in marine and 227,000 (62.2 per cent ) in inland fisheries. The per capita consumption of animal protein in the country is very low and it is only about 7.9 kilograms per person per year. It has been reported that in Balochistan coastal area the catch is lower than the coast of Sindh. Balochistan,s share in the total output with a 770 km long fishing area was around 130,000-150,000 tons. A large portion of fish catch us processed in various forms. The methods are freezing, canning and reductions to fishmeal. Almost all the frozen and canned fishery products are exported, while only about 25 per cent processed fish meal is exported and remaining is consumed locally in the manufacture of poultry feed and other edible items. Similarly, about 45 per cent of the total fish productions are utilized in the production to fishmeal, 35 per cent, marketed as fresh fish and for local consumption. Pakistan consists of the Indus watershed system, dams, barrages, lakes, reservoirs, ponds, canal and disused canals. The names of some important fishing crafts used in catching fish from marine land and inland waters are: sail boats, rowboats, mechanical-cum-sail boats, trawlers, gill-netters. The inland fish industry in Pakistan is facing the problem of fish seed production in the hatcheries, research and organization. The population of fishermen and the number of boats- mechanized and mechanized-cum- sail boats -is low and they are not using the latest methods for fish catching plus there is no proper cold storage and refrigeration facility on their boats, a basic requirement to preserve the seafood. Despite all this, the continental shelf in Balochistan ranges between 10-15 kilometers whereas in Sindh it is as long as 70 kilometers. There are only two harbours in Balochistan, Pasni and Gwadar, but the infrastructure of these harbours not according to international standards. But the official admitted that after the construction of the Costal Highway, communication between Karachi and Pasni, Jiwani, Ormara Gwadar etc,. has become smoother and the journey time reduced. Now it takes six hours to reach Jiwani compared to five days. It is very encouraging to note that now in Balochistan eight seafood processing plants are working and out of this four units have been set up after the construction of the Coastal Highway.