By M. ATHAR KHAN, and Dr. S.M. ALAM,
Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tandojam
Oct 04 - 10, 2004





The word mango (Mangifera indica L.) is the British pronunciation of the Mankay, the Tamil word for the fruit, because it is found in most abundance in Southern India, around Madras. The mango is held in high esteem all over the world and is considered to be native of Indo-Pakistan Sub-continent and eastern Asia. They are to be found in nearly all over the tropical regions of the world, therefore known as "The King" of all fruits.

Mango is cultivated around February/early March, when the cold weather begins to subside and the danger of destruction through frost disappears. It comes in market early in the May and remains in market till August/September. There are more than 1,300 varieties of the mango which are cultivated in the Indo-Pak Sub-continent. In Sindh, there are more than 125 varieties of mango. As we get mangoes from Balochistan and NWFP, but the main source are Sindh and Punjab. In Pakistan, we get more than 10 lack tons production out of which Sindh provides 50% i.e. more than 5 lack tons. Multan and Mirpurkhas are the main regions, where we get mangoes in large quantity. The maximum production we get from Rahim Yar Khan (Punjab), where mangoes are cultivated in more than 26 thousand acres.

The main field of mango is obtained from District Rahim Yar Khan, Bhong Sharif, Rahimabad, Jamaldin Wali, Sadiqabad, Shaikh Wahan, Mianwali Qureshan Zahirpur, Bagho Bahar, Tirandah Mohammad Panah of district Rahim Yar Khan are very famous for mango production. Whereas, Hyderabad, Tandojam, Tando Allahyar, Tando Jan Muhammad, Digri, Nawab Shah, Naushero Feroz, Kharipur Mirus, Ghotki, Bahawalpur, Shuja Abad, Muzzaffar Garh, Koat Addu, Khanewal, Sahiwal, Vihari, Okara, Faisalabad, Jhang, Toba Tek Singh and Sargodah are also very famous for mango production. There are many varieties which are famous in Pakistan, but some varieties which are very common are Sindhri, Langra, Chonsa, Fajri, Samar Bahist, Anwar Ratole, Dasehri, Saroli, Tuta Pari Neelam, Maldah, Collector, Bengan Phali, etc.

As mango is named as "King of the Fruits" similarly Sindhri is said to be "The King of Mangoes", because this variety is top in Pakistan. Sindhri is yellow in colour, and its taste test is very sweet. Sindhri mangoes were first bring by father of our late famous Prime Minister Muhammad Khan Junejo from Bombay and then cultivated at Sindhri and it was named by this father Din Muhammad Junejo as "Sindhri".

Since 1996-97 Pakistan was on 4th position, but according to Jang Midweek Magazine dated 12th July 2000. Pakistan is on 5th rank. India is still on the production of 12 million tons.





12 million ton.


2.1 million ton.


1.5 million ton.


1.25 million ton.


0.93 million ton.


0.91 million ton.


0.60 million ton.


0.23 million ton.

World product

23.80 million ton.

Mango fruit is rich in vitamins, A, B and C and contains water, protein, sugar fats, calcium, phosphorus, fiber and iron. Managoes according to latest scientific research as well as of folk wisdom are known to increase the body resistance against dysentry, cholera and tuber-culosis. It is said "an apple a day keeps the doctor away", this is equally to of the mango. According to our local tradition raw mango seasoned with a pinch of salt quenches thirst and loss of iron in the body, which occurs due to excessive sweating during the sultry summer.

Although Pakistan produces 10 lacs per year, but in export Pakistan is quite far behind with other countries. Up until the 1950s, mango cultivation was rather scanty and a lot of commodity used to come from India, through travellers. However, in the beginning of 60s, some land lords brought strains from India and grafted then in Pakistan. Over due course of time, Pakistan over took India in mango cultivation and right now produces varieties which eater not only to the domestic market, but overseas too. The chief market of Pakistan mangoes is the Middle Eastern countries. Pakistan also exports these mangoes to other countries, like Singapore, Norway, Germany, France, Japan and Koyat.

However, since some years, unfortunately the export of this fruit is facing an uptil struggle on account of tough competition from other Asian countries mainly India Latin America countries. Like Brazil having now also come into the field and Pakistan near monopoly is now being challenged, there could be many reasons for this showing down of exports. One of these reasons in the traditional manner of crop production and half hearted efforts is research. We should never forget that the buyers in the world market are not just interested in prices. They also want good presentation. We have to constantly watch for trends, choices and preferences of the buyers in the world markets. Another things, the processing should be made with the latest machines and packing should not only be fancy and eye catching but durable. It should ensure that the fruit would not rot in transit and that the quality would not diminish in the process. According to the study conducted by International Trade Centre in Geneva, Switzerland about 30% of the food export of all over developing countries, one of which Pakistan is the one, perishes, before it reaches to the foreign market. This is because of the defective packing therefore, we have to improve it by all means to get more foreign exchange from other countries by exporting them good quality of mangoes.