Apr 19 - 25, 2004





The movement for creation of Pakistan was driven by an ideology to find a place for people where they can establish a just society under the guidelines of Islam. The literary work of Allama Iqbal and leadership of Quaid-e-Azam drove this movement. The movement succeeded in gaining a landmass but the ideology could not materialize fully. One reason for that failure was sudden demise of leaders like Quaid-e-Azam and Liaquat Ali Khan who had the skill and organization to work towards that objective. This loss of leadership in quick succession resulted in a leadership vacuum. The country struggled for establishing a form of government that could work towards the actualization of that goal. Authoritarian rulers who experimented with various approaches to lead this young nation further deteriorated the situation. These approaches may have been sincere but they lacked the fundamental ingredients of wide public support, sincerity and a vision. This political chaos resulted in a nation that does not have an orientation and is increasingly frustrated with its leaders. With the passage of time it will be increasingly difficult to lead this young nation with an average age of 25 in a direction peacefully. In this article we are going to compare revolution and evolution to bring change.

INGREDIENTS OF A REVOLUTION: when we look at various revolutions in the human history specially the three most recent ones that is French revolution of 1795, Russian revolution of 1918 and Iranian revolution of 1979. One of the three basic ingredients of a revolution is a literary movement that promotes an ideology totally different from the status quo. The French revolution was guided by the writings of Voltaire whereas Russians took guidance from Karl Marx. These writings were published decades before the actual revolution. The other ingredient is a group of people who believe in that particular ideology who then become proponent of it and convince more people to join. The third ingredient is a social order where a small group of people control vast resources of the nation and deprive a large populace from enjoying these fruits of a society. This creates a stimulus for more people to look for a change, which is provided by the literary movement. Once all these ingredients are present the revolution waits for a reason to be activated. It could be increase in taxes or assassination of an opposition leader or anything that strikes at public sentiments. Once the revolution begins it results in a lot of bloodshed, break up of law and order and demise of all forms of institutions. Ironically people who start the revolution are also consumed by it. For a short period there is a leadership vacuum, which is filled by leaders that may not totally conform to the ideology of the revolution. French revolution resulted in the rule of Napoleon who was far from the ideology. Russian revolution resulted in the leadership of Stalin and Lenin. In Pakistan, luckily, all these three ingredients are absent to ignite a revolution. There is no literary ideology, there is no wide spread pessimism in the population and there is no group of people who are promoting an ideology to change the status quo. But if the current callus attitude of the leaders is not changed we can quickly become a breeding ground of a next revolution.

EVOLUTION THROUGH TRANSFORMATION: The genesis of an evolution or a transformation is much more different than a revolution. Evolution is a peaceful way of bringing a major change. Evolution starts with a band of people who understand the underlying potential of a nation and how it could be released for achieving progress. Evolution requires provision of a political, social and economic environment that encourages the younger generation to utilize their potential. The leaders embark on cleaning hurdles that are impediments for growth. These include introduction of merit in all parts of the society, implementation of economic policies that encourage entrepreneurial activity especially in small business and strengthening law and order with special emphasis on imparting justice quickly and efficiently. Japan after Second World War and China in the last decade are perfect examples of transformation. Japanese products were infamous for their bad quality during the first half of this century. After the Second World War Japanese leaders realized that for it to succeed they have to drastically change their thinking. A group of modern Samurai embarked on a mission to educate corporation and people in becoming the scion of quality. Japan was a nation defeated in a war and devastated by atom bombs. The leaders instead of allowing people to get into self-pity directed their energies in becoming the model of economic growth for the world. Now "Made in Japan" is considered assurance of quality products at affordable prices. Toyota is soon to overtake General Motors of USA as the largest automobile company in the world. China on the other hand adopted a different approach. They gradually eased government control on the industrial activity and encouraged private investment in all industries. They identified their large population as an asset rather than a liability and became the manufacturing center for the world. Now they are embarking on their second phase of development where they are introducing their own brands.



Pakistan became a model for countries like South Korea in early 60s but, due to lack of leadership and vision, it soon faltered from its path of progress. Our leaders have to realize that it is their responsibility to ensure a peaceful transformation on economic, social and political front. If our people can be successful in countries like USA and Saudi Arabia as immigrants there is no reason they can't succeed in their own country given the environment. If the leaders continue to play with the emotions of the nation by introducing slogans of progress and then defying from them, they will encourage the formation of a movement to bring a revolution which will be bloody and dangerous in the volatile South Asian region.