This article is to remove some misconception about
2-Stroke motorcycles. It is wrongly believed in some quarters that
2-Stroke Motorcycles create more pollution.
Do 2-Stroke Motorcycles pose any pollution problem?
What is the size of the problem? To show that it is an extremely small
problem in Pakistan, I would like to give a comparison between 2-Stroke
and 4-Stroke engines with reference to pollution.
According to research conducted by "Japan
Automobile Manufactures Association", the total amount of emissions
from motorcycles (including 2-Stroke Motorcycles) are estimated at about
1% of those from all motorized vehicles. For this reason Japan did not
bother to specify any emission levels for motorcycles for a very long
The sale and the population of motorcycles in
Pakistan, as compared to India and other developing countries is much
smaller. For the last 10 years average yearly sales of motorcycles in
Pakistan has been about 110,000 units per year, while in India it has
been 3,500,000 per year. However since the population of India is much
bigger, we have calculated the sale for every 10,000 persons which come
to 7 per year in Pakistan and 40 per year in India.
I am also giving the yearly sale of 2-Stroke and
4-Stroke Motorcycles for every 10,000 persons in Pakistan and other
This table shows that the problem of pollution
through motorcycles in Pakistan is extremely small as compared to other
2-Stroke and 4-Stroke motorcycles emit carbon
monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Hydrocarbons (HC). 4-Stroke
Motorcycles emit 25% more carbon monoxide and 300% more Nitrogen Oxides
as compared to 4-Stroke motorcycles. However, 2-Stroke motorcycles emit
4 times more Hydrocarbons as compared to 4-Stroke motorcycles. Carbon
monoxide is one of the more harmful gases for humans but it is
colourless and can not be seen by the human eye. As mention above
4-Stroke Motorcycles emit higher level of carbon monoxide.
Also population of 2-Stroke Motorcycles in Pakistan
is much smaller i.e. 350,000 motorcycles as against 750,000 4-Stroke
If the size of problem is so small why is there
criticism against 2-Stroke Motorcycles and Motorcycle Rickshaw?
The answer to this question has been given by
Director General, Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan in the
meeting of 6th June 2003 under the Chairmanship of Honourable Minister
"This problem (of pollution) was solved in the
past where in Lahore a number of rickshaws were made to run with
recommended quality and mixture of lubricants and petrol, and the
results were perfect. The problem arises when low quality lubricants of
lesser price are used by rickshaw drivers."
Torque (Power) of 2-Stroke Motorcycle is always much
higher than 4-Stroke Motorcycle. For this reason 100cc, 2-Stroke
Motorcycles are being extensively used in motorcycle rickshaws. To
generate the same power as 2-Stroke 100cc Motorcycles, we will require
150cc 4-Stroke Motorcycle. Because of higher capacity engine required
for 4-Stroke Motorcycles Rickshaws, the price of 4-Stroke Motorcycle
rickshaw will be high and will not be economically feasible.
During 2003, thirty thousand (30,000) motorcycle
Rickshaws were sold in the market which created 60,000 jobs/employment
for Rickshaw drivers on two shift basis. No other sector of the economy
is creating jobs on such a large scale.
There is very little investment in the industry and
very small numbers of jobs are being created in the industry. A
motorcycle rickshaw cost about Rs.72,000 and such small amount of
investment creates two jobs, whereas in industry one job is created
against an investment of Rs.3.0 million to 3.5 million.
Eleven (11) direct company owned showrooms which are
serving the people of Pakistan by selling motorcycles on easy
In the year 2004, the industry expects to sell about
50,000 motorcycle rickshaws which will result in creation of 100,000
jobs on two shift basis.
Today, two new models of Suzuki motorcycles have been
introduced, the Suzuki Sprinter 4-Stroke 110cc and the Suzuki Bullet
2-Stroke 100cc. The best thing about the Suzuki Sprinter is the
wonderful saving on petrol. Despite the power of the 110cc engine, the
motorcycle can travel 73 km in 1 litre. The saving on petrol is highest
amongst other motorcycles being manufacture in Pakistan. The Front shock
absorbers are equipped with strong and superior quality coil springs and
double oil seals. The double oil seals not only increase their
efficiency, they also protect the shock absorbers from dust and grime.
The rear shock absorbers are an example of technological innovation.
Even on the most difficult of terrains, they have the ability to bear
greater weight. Because of the 5 way preload adjustment, you can adjust
the shock according to weight. No other motorcycle in Pakistan possesses
these adjustable shock absorbers. The swing arm is extremely strong
because of its square design made out of steel. It has the capacity to
bear greater weight and it ensures comfortable travel even in rough
The Suzuki Bullet 2-Stroke 100cc motorcycle is also
being introduced. The new front and rear suspensions are strong and
long-lasting, and all other parts are also of a superior quality. The
special thing about the Suzuki Bullet is the power of its 100cc engine
combined with its saving on petrol. It looks beautiful. PR