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PROFILE

SAIFUDDIN

COLUMN FOR THE RECORD
POLITICS & POLICY SAARC SUMMIT
COMPANY PROFILE FAYSAL BANK PERFORMANCE 2003
MANAGEMENT CONCEPT OF MANAGEMENT IN ARMY
SOCIETY HRM TRENDS AND CHALLENGES

 

REDEFINED CONCEPT OF: MANAGEMENT IN ARMY

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It is high time that management concepts and practices are used in a redefined manner to achieve productive results in all the three roles of Army namely, command, functional and projects

 

PROF. DR. KHAWAJA AMJAD SAEED*
Email: kamjadsaeed@yahoo.com

Dec 29 - Jan 04, 2003 

 

 

At present five Ms are being talked about for ensuring success in business and industry. These include:

Box No. 1:
Five Ms for success

S. No.

Ms

1.

Material

2.

Machines

3.

Men

4.

Money

5.

Management

Management is an old discipline. However, in its scientific and systematic role, management is a young discipline one hundred years old. Management has played a great role in the Army in the past. However in view of changing scenario and the dominant driving slogan of the 21st century namely, Knowledge Based Economy (KBE), the role of management in army is changing.

This article looks at some important aspects of redefined concept of management in army.

This piece consists of the following parts:

Part

Constituent

A

Concept of Management

B

Management Pyramid

C

Contributions of Army in Management

D

Redefined Roles of Management in Army

E

External Environments Affecting Army

F

The Turned on Organization

G

Supervisor's Roles

Each of the above points is now briefly reviewed below:

A:CONCEPT OF MANAGEMENT:

Several concepts of management exist in today's world. Historically emphasis has been on scientific approach, functional focus, behavioral directions, welfare aspects, systems approach and contingency approach. However there is one consensus namely, management is the development of people and not directing things. This outcry is becoming more pronounced in today's time as UNDP, rightly guided by Dr. Mehboobul Haq, developed HDI (Human Development Index). Based on 162 countries, it ranks the countries of the world. Based on 2002 HDI, Pakistan was ranked 129 out of 162. Unfortunately in the UNDP HDI Index for 2003, Pakistan has slipped to 144 rank. This looks paradoxical seeing all the good efforts being done in Pakistan to uplift the educational, health, sanitation and other aspects. However, we must reflect on what we are doing and what we ought to do to help improve our HDI rank. All stakeholders in Pakistan must accept this as a challenge. Hopefully our rank will improve in 2004 after implementation of several steps announced in Federal and Provincial Budgets for 2003-2004 in Pakistan.

B: MANAGEMENT PYRAMID:

Generally speaking, normal pyramid, illustrated below is followed in army:

However in civil life, this approach is changing to inverted pyramid illustrated below:

 

 

LEGEND:

1: Top Management
2: Middle Management
3: Lower Management

Moreover there is a greater emphasis on bureaucracy busters by constituting teams to accomplish the tasks assigned to the team. Team leader is elected/selected by the team. This approach ensures elimination of organizational hierarchies. Management in army is a continuous process as is illustrated below:

C: CONTRIBUTIONS OF ARMY IN MANAGEMENT:

Globally army has three major roles as are given below:

Except for few countries with belligerent and hegemonious approach, successful march towards peace, harmony and tranquility is continuing. Consequently there are two new trends growing in command function namely, small armies and deterrents due to nuclear capability or moral understanding through no war pacts. A new concept of army is steadily growing namely, "Productive Army". During peace time, army is employed or undertake economic activities and social functions. Functional aspects of management is seeing a changing direction namely Research & Development (R&D). Undertaking projects e.g. defense production, economic projects, construction of infrastructure and other initiatives in agricultural, industrial and infrastructural projects by establishing army welfare trust is a conspicuous strategic direction.

Past contributions of army included the following:

1) Staff Support Advice
2) Uniform Methods of performing tasks
3) Discipline

However new thrust of management aspects in army is as under:

1) Leadership
2) Authority
3) Conflict

D: REDEFINED ROLES OF MANAGEMENT IN ARMY:

Redefined roles of management in army compared to civil, referred to "Basic" hereafter requires an intensive treatment. For this piece we have selected some aspects namely, leadership traits, quality circles (QCs), external environments, turned on organizations and supervisor's role. Box No. 2 presents comparative chart in respect of leadership traits:

 

 

Box No. 2:
Leadership Traits

S. No.

Activity

Basic

Army

1.

Physical

Less

More

2.

Social More

Less

 

3.

Personality

More

Less

4.

Personal

More

More

Quality circles (QCs) were started in 1960 in Japan to improve quality through an institutionalized approach. Operational aspects regarding QCs have achieved higher production, greater productivity and accelerated growth. Comparative position in this respect between "Army" and "Basic" is captured below:

Box No. 3:
Quality Circles

S. No.

Particulars

Basic

Army

1.

Start

1960 - Japan Improving quality of products Discussing Solutions

Evolving

2.

Aspects

1. Social
2. Technical
3. Managerial

Evolving

3.

Social

1. Commitment
2. 7-10 Members
3. Participation - Free Wheeler
4. Motivation - Deciding their own action

Yes
Flexible
Structured

Slogan

4.

Technical

1. Brainstorming
2. Process Flow Chart
3. Cause & Effect analysis
4. Data gathering & histogram
5. ABC analysis
6. Scatter Diagram
7. Control Charts

Continuous
Yes
Yes
Data Intelligence

Yes
Yes
Yes

5.

Managerial

1. Support, Commitment
2. Process Flow Chart
3. Experts: "Who will do the work"

Staff Advice
Leadership
Yes

E:EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTS AFFECTING ARMY:

In Civil (Basic) sectors, evaluation of external environments focuses on PEST formula illustrated below:

Box No. 4:
PEST Formula

Component

Meaning

P

Political

E

Economic

S

Sociological

T

Technology

However, broadly speaking evaluation and study of external environment focuses on the following aspects:

1. Technology
2. Nuclear Ramifications
3. Sociological Factors
4. Economic Factor
5. Political Impacts
6. Army's civil role
7. Development role

 

 

F:THE TURNED ON ORGANIZATIONS:

The world has gone through several cycles, normal ones, upswinging ones, boom, doom, deflationary, reflationary, disinflatory and staflationary. However, there has been growing thurst to turn sick units into healthy ones. Turnaround strategies have been much talked about and practiced too. Currently the growing trend is to achieve the status of "Turned On Organization". Figure No. 5 illustrated the approach used as "Basic":

*Refer to booklet entitled "Quality Outnumbered" issued by the psychological warfare, GHQ, Rawalpindi.

G: SUPERVISOR'S ROLE:

Middle management/supervisors, foremen, shop stewards play a vital role in successful management of activities. Comparative management roles in "Basic" and "Army" have been well tabulated in Box No. 5:

Box No. 5:
Supervisor's Role

Particulars

Basic

Army

1. Role

Autocratic

Leadership

2. Targets

Flexible

Deadlines

3. Approach

Consultative

Harmonious

 

Approach

Relations

CONCLUSION

It is high time that management concepts and practices are used in a redefined manner to achieve productive results in all the three roles of Army namely, command, functional and projects. Greater awareness needs to be created in this respect. With determined will, and by Allah's grace, objectives will be achieved in a better manner and level of implementation will be on higher side. Let us stay committed and practice redefined roles of management in army.

* Principal, Hailey College of Banking & Finance, Constituent College of the University of the Punjab, Lahore; Member Governing Council, International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) (1997-2000); President, South Asian Federation of Accountants (SAFA) (1997); President, Institute of Cost and Management Accountants of Pakistan (1997-2000); President, Association of Management Development Institutions of South Asia (AMDISA) (1993-96); Pro Vice-Chancellor, University of the Punjab, Lahore (1994-1996); Founder Director, Institute of Business Administration (IBA), University of the Punjab, Lahore (1973-1996).