Prof. Dr. Khawaja Amjad Saeed was the first
Chartered Accountant in the history of Pakistan who adopted teaching
profession as a full time career. He started teaching in Hailey
College of Commerce University of The Punjab Lahore in 1965 and also
qualified as a Chartered Accountant in December, 1965 attempt. Besides
quality teaching, he has written several books in the area of
Auditing, Accounting, Mercantile & Corporate Laws, Financial
Reporting, Income Tax Laws, Economy of Pakistan and related areas.
His latest book namely, Advanced Auditing has just
been released in the year 2003. Foreword to this book has been
contributed by President of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of
Pakistan, Karachi. The book consists of thirty chapters supported with
various tables, list of forms, table of statutes, list of cited cases.
It is also supported with an index to facilitate easy referencing.
Contents include Introductory aspects of auditing, audit tasks to be
completed before commencement of audit, audit approach, audit
planning, controlling an audit, quality control methods and
procedures, documentation, audit techniques, internation controls, the
auditor of a limited company, audit completion stage, auditor's
reports, computer audit, special audit, divisible profit and auditors,
professional ethics, liability of an auditor, Internal audit,
management audit, cost audit, business investigation, auditing case
laws, auditors report forms and code of corporate governance with
A code of ethics applicable to all Chartered
Accountants including practising Chartered Accountants and employed
Chartered Accountants has also been included.
The book is a positive response to growing needs of
various audits namely internal audit, cost audit, computer audit,
special audit and management audit.
There is a lucid explanation to all aspects
governing audit. A vide variety of readers can benefit from the book.
The book can be used to reinforce sound financial and administrative
controls to minimize the incidents of frauds and forgeries. The Chief
Executives can inspire CFOs (Chief Financial Officers) to implement
the real spirit of financial management. The CFOs can optimally
utilize and protect funds of the companies by benefiting from the
material included in the book. Management audit can be operationalzed
in the light of measures included in the book. Business investigation
can be undertaken by following the suggested steps. The external
auditors and their staff under training can be enriched from the
auditing techniques included in the book. The student pursuing
professional level for the examination of the Institute of Chartered
Accountants of Pakistan and the Institute of Cost Management
Accountants of Pakistan will find reading of the book a rewarding
exercise for earning success in their professional level examination.
All told the list of beneficiaries can be very comprehensive.
The book also contains profuse references to
International standards on Auditing adopted in Pakistan. Relevant
aspects of the directives of the Securities Exchange Commission of
Pakistan relating to internal audit, external audit and code of
corporate governance have also been nicely reviewed in the book.
The book is recommended to diverse readerships so
that financial discipline is enforced and bottom line is beefed up to
achieve effective, efficient and economy oriental results of business
Indeed the author deserves congratulations for his
splendid effort in writing the book. It is hoped that his noble effort
to produce literature will continute.
Marketing cases with emphasis on internation
business — Edited by Prof. Dr. Khawaja Amjad Saeed, Cost and
Management Accountant, Chartered Accountant, published by Institute of
Business Management, GPO Box 1164, Lahore, pp 120.
The traditional method of teaching is the lecture
method. The case study method, first developed by law school now used
as a powerful tool by business schools and management development for
developing analytical skills relating to decision making.
The book is intended to be a text book with
business schools for their marketing courses. Edited by Prof. Dr.
Khawaja Amjad Saeed, founder Director of the IBA, University of the
Punjab, Lahore, who has written a number of books on management,
economy of Pakistan, corporate financial reports, mercantile laws,
auditing and other subjects relating to financial and cost and
management accounting. It contains case studies by 22 scholars, and is
divided into four sections. The first section introduces the details
of the case study method, the second section the export scene of
Pakistan and the third and the fourth give actual cases and teaching
notes thereon. A case is a written description of an enterprise, an
event or situation containing information about its history, content,
problems etc. that are identified and which are then analyzed to
arrive at a decision regarding the advisable course of action, or for
evaluation and research. It may or may not be taken from a real life
situation. It has several advantages over the traditional methods of
teaching but also has its limitations in that it is much more time
consuming and there is a general lack of trained teachers for the job.
The case study method was first used in 1871 in the
teaching of law. The book is self-contained as it gives complete
history of the case study method and comprehensive guidelines about
how to prepare cases for teaching and research purposes as well as how
to analyze the case in both its macro and micro aspects. Several
technical tools are needed for case analysis and these include the
financial tools of liquidity, solvency and profit ratios and break
even analysis, and the project evaluation tools of Return on
Investment (ROI), Net Present Value (NPV) and so on. These are
enumerated with their formulae, definition and other details. Thus
even a Non-professional can at least get an idea of what it takes to
appraise business. In Pakistan there are several impediments in the
use of case study method e.g. no single institution exists playing a
national role in collecting case material, lack of trained teachers
and reluctance of firms to make available information lest they be
involved in tax evasion, litigation and other problems. Several
suggestions have been given in the book, e.g., that a case service
institution be set up in Pakistan under the overall supervision of
University Grants Commission (UGC) and that enlightened Organizations
be approached to provide information for writing and developing cases
for study and research purposes. In fact, even the Organizations are
likely to benefit from this.
The case study method not only develops decision
making skills but also stimulates learning. However, the students are
warned to distinguish between areas where generalizations are possible
and where they are not. Section two covers Pakistan's export problems
and gives valuable export data. Suggestions on how to increase exports
are included. At present Pakistan's main exports are raw materials or
low value-added products.
Some of the cases studied pertain to actual firms
operating in the manufacturing service construction and other sectors.
Should new plants or technology be acquired under a given set of
conditions, how to increase productivity, face challenges from
competitors, manage change, develop an effective marketing strategy,
etc. are some of the questions covered in the case studies. An
interesting study pertains to two pipe manufacturers, whose product
quality and prices are the same, but one of them have already bribed
their way to success and are fully backed by government officials who
benefit from their largesse, when they tender for government
organizations, their main customers. The question is how the other
firm should deal with their competitors in this situation of unethical
and unfair competition. Thus most of the cases illustrate a complex
interplay of financial, technical, marketing and human relations
forces. Most of the cases are about Pakistani industries and other
enterprises but some studies pertain to Bangladesh.
Currently Prof. Dr. Khawaja Amjad Saeed is serving
as Principal Hailey College of Banking & Finance Constituent
College of the University of The Punjab, Old Campus, Lahore.