After 1970, companies had taken faster step of doing
business because of the advancement in calculation and computing devices
and EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) in particular. After some time
they got some more advancement and were acquainted with information
Because of such information systems and their proper
activation, companies were still facing problems to reach the customer
with their idea and product. But after the advent of the Internet,
companies were very happy and they were of the opinion that they got
everything by having an existence on the web, it was an ill-luck would
have it that they again got bit problem in getting desired and expected
response from the customers. After long research with cyber consultants,
they found that just being on the net is not enough but need to be very
effective in marketing philosophy for the full response from the
In this way companies overcame the technique to add
traditional marketing business activities with modern business
functions. This led companies undoubtedly towards the success of getting
customer's positive response.
Moreover, human being's change and innovative
behaviors brought some more ideas that could change business models and
that gave birth to e-commerce and mobile commerce activities.
Despite of tremendous accomplishments of Internet and
economic industries to dates, it has been observed that world's business
activities depend on full integration of the globe. Customers know the
product but want to reach it with in no time. In this way, companies
look for such kind of solution that can satiate the need of the
customers on the spur of the movement, that's why companies joined the
party of major business trends which include greater pervasiveness of
computers continuing convergence of computing and communication, greater
automation of work, more value residing in information, new form of
organization and management, faster pace of business, accelerating
global competition and gradual acceptance of global standards.
Therefore, some exciting developments happened
towards the realization of complete integration. Over the past few
years' new software companies have emerged offering an entirely new set
of tools that support "business in an instant". These
companies are helping to build what is called the real-time enterprise.
The real-time enterprise occurs when all of the company's departments,
channels and partners are connected electronically for the purpose of
supply and demand chains. This allows a real-time exchange of such
information as changes in customer demand, inventory, profitability and
competitive situations. This is all because of advancement in computing
technologies which was the answer to focus on SDK chains and to find
ways to be proficient in planning and maintaining those miraculous
IT executives have the greatest management challenges
and opportunities in modern organizations. Everything is coming their
way. The cost of operating organizations are going up at an alarming
rate. Labor, management, physical plant, raw materials, energy and
transportation all cost more. The only exception to their phenomena is
modern integrated information systems.
IT managers can help to take effective initiative to
equip their companies with the following SDK chains to be chained with
the progressive and fast paced changing technological world.
ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning)
SCM (Supply Chain Management)
CRM (Customer Relationship Management)
Marketing (Traditional and Internet Marketing)
BI (Business Intelligence)
KM (Knowledge Management)
IT commentators have voted SDK chains that they are
real factors which are moving companies to the right direction.
SDK chains also brought many opportunities to be
connected with the customers all over the world. In this connection an
evolution of ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) was the right answer.
During the operations of ERP systems, an other need of CRM (Customer
Relationship Management) was created to more properly manage the
customers database and after this success the problem of reaching
customers was still there and this diverted information executive's
attention towards the distribution of products which resulted in the
development of an SCM (Supply Chain Management) to get the customers
with the product from any corner of the world.
ERP (ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING).
ERPs are software packages composed of several
modules, such as human resource, sales, finance and production,
providing cross organization integration of data through imbedded
business processes. These software packages can be customized to answer
the specific needs of each organization.
Actually, these systems are computer-based systems
designed to process an organizational transactions and facilitate
integrated and real-time planning production and customer response. ERP
was evolved from the term MRP II (Manufacturing Resource Planning) that
was an extension of MRP (Material Requirement Planning)
MRP was mainly focused on distribution management
activities and MRP II was further extended to cover areas like
engineering, finance, human resources and project management but ERP was
evolved to cover more business enterprise activities of modern era.
There are many ERP solution providers but SAP,
Oracle, BAAN, PeopleSoft, J.D Edward are the most popular vendors in
this list. SAP has always taken a lead in such solution because of its
complete and vast business enterprise solution. Oracle is coming very
fast at second number by providing more flexibility in their vast
ERP information systems are real business solutions
in today's age, moreover, many companies still hesitate to adopt such
information systems because of less expertise in the areas of managing
such huge, complex and sensitive operationalization of high level ERP
SCM (SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT)
SCM is an elimination and removal of barrier between
trading partners in order to facilitate the synchronization of
information between them. SCM is not only just moving freight in but its
about looking at much bigger picture, making the most of your core
competencies and outsourcing those that are not with you. SCM is a
service that increases efficiency, reduce cost, reduce cycle times, add
value for customers and create competitive advantage. SCM software has
the group of software applications, some of the SCM steps have different
softwares for specific steps because of different tasks in different
activities like planning for the demand of product and service, setting
a price for proper delivery and finding a source for logistics.
For example SCP (Supply Chain Planning) software uses
fancy math algorithms to help you improve the flow and efficiency of the
supply chain and reduce inventory and SCE (Supply Chain Execution)
software is intended to automate the different steps of the supply
chain. But supply chain collaboration was the proper answer for the
companies to share logistic resources and be efficient in coordinating
to better serve the KINGS of products (Customers).
For example WalMart and Proctor & Gamble built
software that hooked P&G up to WalMart's distribution centers. When
P&Gís products run low at the distribution center, the system sends
an automatic alert to P&G to ship more products.
In some cases, the system goes all the way to the
individual Wal-Mart store. It lets P&G monitor the shelves through
real-time satellite link-ups that send messages to the factory whenever
a P&G item swoops past a scanner at the register.
ERP and CRM stagnated for integration only but SCM
continued to grow. ERP and SCM's collaboration planning enticed
enterprises to join this race of integration and supply chain science.
CRM (CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT)
CRM is customer centric strategy that empowers
enterprises to achieve significant economic results in today's dynamic
CRM enables companies to gather and access
information about customer's buying histories, preferences, complaints
and other data so that they can better anticipate what customers will
want. This helps to build customer loyalty.
Time has gone when sellers had a power and had no
time to consider the customer's preferences and care for buyer's
readiness stages. Power has been shifted from sellers to buyers because
of the exclusive innovation of Internet technologies, now buyer has many
options and alternatives for different products and companies has rushed
to chase them and try to know their preferences and likeability and
applying different marketing philosophies. Time compression situation
has driven companies to find most proper ways to contact customers and
maintain the database efficiently for the purpose of building loyalty
because one happy customer can tell five people about the experience and
service with the particular product while an unhappy one will tell nine,
so companies are to pay special attention to properly manage customer
By incorporating today's e-business technologies, an
enterprise can harness the power of all its resources to effectively
manage every aspect of the customer relationship. There is only one
choice left for modern companies that is to enhance the customer focused
processes that must be supported by customer's interaction throughout
CRM projects are often designed to integrate call
centers, help desks, sales data, information about customer preferences
and buying patterns and all methods of customer communications.
CRM solution leaders like Epiphany, Interact
commerce, Nortel Networks, Onyx, Oracle, Peoplesoft, SAP, Siebel Systems
play important role in providing proper solution according to their
specific needs of business activities.
As CRM is just to maintain and enhance the database
of customers, it doesn't fulfill the need of companies because the
emerging problem is to get the product into the home of the customer and
that is only possible when you have proper management of logistics and
distribution, this was the only factor which led companies to master in
MARKETING (TRADITIONAL AND INTERNET MARKETING)
Marketing is playing very important role in today's
fast-communicated technological era. Marketing Managers say that
marketing is not only getting product into customer's hands but to
retain customers for longer time. Marketing is the study of buyer's
needs and preferences and to get customer's conviction towards company's
As modern organizations have been geared towards
Internet, marketing has adopted various shapes to entice the customers
to their product features.
When we talk about marketing, we probably talk about
all marketing methods like Electronic marketing, Web marketing and
Internet marketing and when business or commerce is mentioned, we talk
about Electronic commerce, Electronic business and Internet business and
when advertising stuff comes then we can talk about Advertising on the
net and Internet commerce etc.
From the marketing perspective, Internet marketing is
one of the paramount activity to focus on.
An electronic marketing is an inter-organizational
information system activity that provides facilities for buyers and
sellers to exchange information about pricing and product offerings.
This activity is effective in assisting the buyer in a commodity market
where products are essentially identical across all sellers.
Moreover, Internet marketing is the persuasion of
someone who is on the net and you want him to visit your company's home
page, you have to make that page so attractive which may mesmerize the
visitor to come back for your product offer. And once you get visitors
to your site, it is very important to maintain supply activity and
interactivity to keep them coming back.
It is experienced that a website which takes lot of
time to open because of some heavy java scripts and graphics that can
result in low response. This should be handled in a way that provides
simple but covering all required information which visitor wants to
The companies which just depended on technological
aspects of website are experienced to get low response because couple of
marketing philosophical points are some time missed, so traditional and
modern marketing can work when both the situations are done in
convincing the respondents.
For the successful Internet marketing both technical
and marketing professionals can formulate a better website for the
customers. We don't really favor our customer by designing a web site
but he does favor to us when he visits our site.
BI (BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE)
In today's Internet age the right decision at the
right time play a very important role in moving organization to the
right track of the success. BI is such a marvelous technique, which
enables organization to reach into the vast supply of information
available in the new economic world, which rapidly turns into real
knowledge for decisions and actions. It also helps to implement industry
leading measurement technologies. It provides a framework for
understanding key performance metrics and optimizing our operations that
is beneficial at the same time for our business partners and our
Through BI capabilities, company can offer industry's
integrated, content rich; fully web-based strategic management suite and
many others that are enabling companies to communicate goals throughout
virtual and interenterprise teams which can monitor performance of key
success factors using external and internal benchmarks.
BI also helps in formulating ways to analyze and
optimize performance based situations on a unified business model. It
offers all the functionality of integrating all the information
throughout your organization.
Employees and analyst organize all such activities in
proper format and add knowledge management ideas to equip organizations
to make the life smooth and efficient.
KM (KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT)
Information specialists comment that knowledge is
that thing which is recorded in an individual brain and stored in
organizational processes, products, facilities, systems and documents.
But KM is also known as the fact or condition of knowing something with
familiarity gained through experience and association.
But today's information superhighway has left so many
challenges and opportunities for business that focuses on knowledge as
an effective tool to run any business through that experience and
KM is the systematic process of finding, selecting,
organizing and presenting information in a way that improves an
employee's comprehension in a specific area of interest. IT managers are
pursuing a challenging career in the field of KM to get full
acquaintance with such activities which may focus the organization to
acquire, store and utilize knowledge for the things like, problem
solving, dynamic learning, strategic planning and decision making. Many
companies failed to keep the pace of right track of this target because
of less insight in understanding KM, they could not minimize the wastage
of company's resources, could not budgeted time for system efficiency,
could not focus on employee's expertise with modern operationalization
of the information systems. But KM brings the solution to address all
KM helps us to understand about what is being done in
the company, when to make changes? So all is the proper utilization of
professional management followed by professional cognizance of
That's why very rightly uttered by Charlie Bixter
(2001) that KM is the process of managing the leadership, organization,
technology and learning aspects of internal and external intellectual
assets through retention and collaborative sharing of knowledge for the
purpose of improving performance and inspiring innovation throughout an
KM as a prevention will enable the formalizing and
integrating of experience, knowledge and expertise with in an
enterprise. Information executives are emphasized to be an adept in
understanding such management practice to take the companies to definite
In this whole study, I have found that forthcoming
innovation will only be about networked world and the security issue
will always be there but information executives will find better ways to
work on SDK Chains, which will be an ultimate solution towards business
arena. I take this opportunity to remind my readers that it was
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) in 1970's, Management Information
Systems (MIS) in 1980's, Internet Computer Technologies (ICT) in 1990,
Electronic Commerce (EC) and Electronic Business (EBiz) in 1996 to 2000
and now Mobile Commerce (MCommerce), wireless technologies like Wireless
application protocol (WAP) and UMTS services.
We can of course prognosticate a very funny and
interesting technology to come in the second half of the first decade of
I am so excited what will be that form of business
chains and what will be shape of that technology and computers in
particular may be in such a small size which can easily have a place to
come in my eye and then the moment I will blink, the business
transaction will happen.