SOCIETY GLOBAL CORRUPTION
COLUMN FOR THE RECORD
POLITICS & POLICY IRAQ WAR: STIFF RESISTANCE

 

GLOBAL CORRUPTION

.As viewed through Transparency International

By PROF. DR. KHAWAJA AMJAD SAEED
E-mail: kamjadsseed@yahoo.com

April 07-13 2003
 
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Corruption is rampant throughout the world. The scope extends to developed and developing countries. The magnitude of corruption, however, varies from country to country. Empirical research shows that basically there are two causes of corruption namely: need and greed. Whereas needs can be met by reviewing pay packages, no package can take care of the greed which has no end. Perception of those who are corrupt is very different. They think that what they receive as graft does not fall within the domain of corruption. They consider the receipts from corruption as their entitlement. Consequently, their appetite to collect money through corrupt practices continues to be increasing to their personal benefits and to the detriment of the society. Further moral deterioration continues and the image of the country at home and abroad continues to be tarnished.

By and large, most of the ruling governments, backed up by bureaucracy and other constituents of the Government, continue to harp on the theme that there is no corruption.

In the above back drop, Transparency International (TI) launched the first Corruption Perception Index (CPI) in 1995. Subsequently, TI continues to release CPI on annual basis. The latest one released by TI is CPI 2002.

CPI 2002

Downloaded material from the Web states that a CPI 2002 score relates to perception of the degree of corruption as seen by business people, academic and risk analysts and ranges between ten (highly clean) and zero (highly corrupt). A total of 15 surveys were used from nine independent institutions and at least three surveys were required for a country to be included in the CPI. In this respect, a survey used refers to the number of surveys that assessed country's performance. In the above CPI index, 102 countries were included in the CPI 2002 score. Using CPI which is a poll of polls the minimum number of surveys carried out were three and the maximum were fifteen. In the year 2001, the survey was restricted to 91 countries.

A rating scale from 0 to 10 was used. The higher the scale, the lesser is the perception about corruption. Inversely the lower the scale, the higher is the perception about the level of corruption. Based on research of the data released by TI, major findings are as under:

1. Finland was the least corrupt country in the world. It obtained 9.7 out of 10.

2. There were nine countries which obtained nine or above nine out of ten. These included: Finland, Denmark, New Zealand, Iceland, Singapore, Sweden, Canada, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.

3. Seventy countries out of 102 obtained a score of less than five.

4. Seven countries obtained less than two out of ten and were consequently in the higher corrupt nation bracket. These included: Angola, Bangladesh, Kenya, Indonesia, Madagascar, Nigeria and Paraguay.

The following frequency table, presenting a comparison of CPI 2001 compared to CPI 2002, has been prepared:

Table 1

 CPI 2001 compared to CIP 2002

Group

CPI 2002

CPI 2001

8.0 - 9.7

14

13

6.0 - 7.9

13

13

4.0 - 5.9

22

20

2.0 - 3.9

46

41

1.2 - 1.9

97

04

Total: 102 91

Source: Computed from data download from: http://www/gwd&de/-wwvw/2002.data html

The average is slightly above 4.0

5. Out of a total of 102 countries, the following table gives the position of 16 countries in three blocks. The data given below indicates categories of countries where the corruption is the least, is moderate and is the highest.

 

Table 2

Country                              

Scale
(Maximum: 10)

Block-I

1.

Finland

9.7

2.

Canada

9.0

3.

UK

8.7

4.

Australia

8.6

5.

USA

7.7

6.

Germany

7.3

7.

Japan

7.1

Block-II

8.

Taiwan

5.6

9.

Italy

5.2

10.

Malaysia

4.9

11.

South Korea

4.5

12.

Turkey

3.2

Block-III

13.

Russia

2.7

14.

India

2.7

15.

Pakistan

2.6

16. Bangladesh 1.2

Source: on September 2, 2002 downloaded from: http//www.gwdg.de/-uwvw/2002 data. html

 

 

PAKISTAN'S POSITION

CPI for the year 1999 ranked Pakistan as No. 3 a highly corrupt nation by TIs CPI 1999 index. The situation marginally improved as TI CPI 2000 ranked Pakistan No. 5. The situation further improved to rank twelve based on TIs CPI for 2001. However, in the TI CPI Index 2002, Pakistan has now been ranked as No. 77. We are still below the average and have the challenge to go a long way to reduce the extent of corruption. However, we are steadily moving towards lesser corruption as our rank is improving. All the stake-holders must contribute towards the noble cause of reducing corruption through transparency, moral rearmament, contentment and enforcement of law as a crack down to nab the corrupt segments. The job should be initiated on priority basis and all institutions including National Accountability Bureau should play their productive role to uproot the corruption.