SOCIETY

PROFILE  MUHAMMAD ILYAS PADELA
COLUMN  FOR THE RECORD
POLITICS & POLICY  1.  SECOND CONSTITUTIONAL PACKAGE
 2.  PAKISTAN'S FIRST EVER POPULATION  POLICY
SOCIETY  1.  MANAGEMENT EDUCATION IN FUTURE
 2.  TACKLING POVERTY

 

MANAGEMENT EDUCATION IN FUTURE

 

By Dr. FUAZIA NAHEED KHAWAJA
July 22 - 28, 2002

 

 

Future is uncertain. The only certainty of future is its uncertainty. There is a dire need to read and predict the emerging trends of management education in future. This piece reviews aspects such as management education inretrospect, future needs of management education in terms of developing sound business leaders and developing turned on organizations. It presents salient features of a luxury MBA for high class global organizations. It shares next generation management education experience of a global consortium of five business schools of Canada, UK, France, India and Japan. Having reviewed the foregoing global experiences it concludes with twelve points Charter of Management Education in future for South Asia. These points serve as an agenda for active debate so that continuous improvement follows in respect of entire system of a new improved management education to serve the growing needs of the society in general and users in particular.

MANAGEMENT EDUCATION - IN RETROSPECT

Before suggesting directions of management education in future, it would be interesting to review brief history of management education in the past. Some aspects in this respect are reviewed below:

1. TILL 19TH CENTURY

Hit and Trial approach in management education continued. Top management was guided by seniors who, by virtue of their former experience, guided their successors. Supervisors followed the traditional role of being autocratic, setting quantitative targets and emphasis on wastage avoidance. Hardly any training was given to workers. In business schools, teaching in commerce dominated.

2. 20TH CENTURY

Management education was dominated in business schools mainly influenced by Scientific Management Theory (1890 - 1940), Bureaucratic Management Theory (1930 - 1950) and Human Relation Theory (1930 - today). Contingency Theory and Systems Theory represented Contemporary Theories in management and were taught. Business schools curricula emphasized teaching functional areas of five management with application in five aspects as is tabulated below

TABLE 1

Traditional Approach to Management Education

Emphasis Function

Procurement

Personnel

Production

Finance

Marketing

Planning

         

Organizing

         

Assembling

         

Resources

         

Directing

         

Controlling

         

Strategic Planning emerged. Later Strategic Management was emphasized. End of 20th Century saw the emergence of Strategic Intent. Management education used various pedagogical tools. Conducting executive development programs by top business schools all over the world was conspicuous and these aspects were heavily advertised. Evaluation of rating of business schools became popular. This trend needs to be strengthened for continuous improvement. At present rankings of business schools are released by:

  • 1. Wall Street Journal (2001)

  • 2. Business Week (2000)

  • 3. Asiaweek (2000), Asia's Best MBA Programs

  • 4. Asia Inc. (1999), Top Asian Pacific Business School

  • 5. Business Education Commission (2000), Top European Business Schools

  • 6. US News & World Report (2001)

The Financial Times (UK edition) releases Top 50 International Full Time MBA Programs. The criteria included 21 points covering employment/salaries of graduates, nature of faculty, internationalness, Opinions of alumni and research rating.

Release of such rankings for full time MBA Programs (as a whole and with specializations) and management developments must continue as an integral part of healthy impact on management education in future.

DEVELOPING LEADERSHIP

Several theories including traits, etc. dominated the world. Now it is being increasingly realized that focus should be on developing personalities of leaders. Emphasis should be on three significant areas namely, thinking, feelings and inter-relationships and outward behavior. Annex "A" captures various constituents of each of the above three areas.

TURNED ON ORGANIZATIONS

Three areas of emphasis resulting in developing turned on organizations are pictorially displayed below:

FIGURE 1: FEATURES OF TURNED ON ORGANIZATIONS

To logistically cushion the above areas, eight vital insights and profits are suggested by R. Dow and S. Cook. These are listed below:

  • 1. Build on strong Foundation.

  • 2. Make every customer feel special.

  • 3. Have the courage to set bold goals.

  • 4. Simplify, Simplify, Simplify.

  • 5. Make technology your servant.

  • 6. Measure well, Act fast.

  • 7. Unleash the power of people.

  • 8. Lead with Care.

MBA: LUXURY STYLE

Six modules of luxury style MBA of France include using six areas i.e. developing competent leader, managing complexity, inculcating creative management, creating competent marketer, maturing leadership skills and making cultured leaders. Details are given on Appendix "C".

NEXT GENERATION MANAGEMENT EDUCATION

Several experiments are going on in the world in respect of next generation management education. No business schools appears to be satisfied with their current level efforts. Courses are being restructured. Faculty updating is an active agenda. Physical facilities are being substantially upgraded. Gown-town relationship is growing. Business linkages with business school are increasing. Users are being consulted on a wider scale. Delivery system for processing the participants in business school is undergoing spectacular changes in terms of improvements. Emphasis is being given on attracting appropriate persons into business schools. Global consortiums of various business schools are being constituted spreading over various continents. These are visible trends in management education in future.

This portion of the paper shares next generation management education of International Masters Program in Practicing Management (IMPM). Five top business schools from around the world i.e. Americas (Canada), Europe (England and France), Asia (India and Japan) have formed a consortium to offer the above program.

Twelve innovative points of IMPM Program have been emphasized. These centre around areas which are; integrated mindsets, customized, intermodular, work on a venture, tutoring, competency sharing, instant workshops, responsive classroom experience, electic group of participants, close learning, private internet conferencing service and managerial exchange.

The program is being conducted for mid-career executives of a limited number of companies. Dominant emphasis has been given on developing five managerial mindsets which are tabulated below:

TABLE 2

Managerial Mindset

Mindset

Direction

1. Reflective

Practice of Managing

2. Analytic

Managing Organizations

3. Worldly

Managing Context

4. Collaborative

Managing Relationship

5. Action

Managing Change

This approach for management education for future is a significant departure from the functional siols of traditional management as is tabulated below:

TABLE 3

Functional Siols of Traditional Management

S. No.

Areas

1.

Personnel

2.

Procurement

3.

Production

4.

Finance

5.

Marketing

For paving the way to achieve the goal for changing managerial mindset, various roles of foregoing participating institutions are tabulated below:

TABLE 4

Managerial Mindset

Institution

Role

1. Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo, Japan

Focus on people and learning skills.

2. INSEAD, Fontaine-blean, France

Corporate transformation.

3. Lancaster University, Lancaster, England

Reflection and company-focused programs.

4. McGill University, Montreal, Canada

Depth in systems and organization theory.

5. Indian Institute of Management, Banglore, India

Experience in Public Sector issues.

The new and innovative approach focuses on developing competencies in four areas namely, personnel, interpersonal, informational and action. Operational details in respect of above areas are explained in Table 5.

TABLE 5
Managerial Competencies

Competencies

Operational Details

1. Personal

 Managing Self

  • Time

  • Data

 Reflecting on self

  • Strategic Thinking

  • Inretrospection

 Leading: Individuals

  • Selecting

  • Empowering

  • Mentoring

  • Training

 Leading: Groups

  • Team Building

  • Conflict Resolution

 Leading: Organization

  • Culture Building

  • Networking

  • Lobbying

  • Negotiation

2. Informational

 Designing

  • Planning

  • Visioning

  • Crafting

 Scheduling

  • Agenda setting

  • Timing

 Doing

  • Project Managing

  • Fire Fighting

  • Deal Making

Interestingly three models have been emphasized for developing managerial concepts namely, individual, organization and society. Relevant details are captured in table 6:

Model Focus

Operational Details

1. Individual

 Rational (Economics)
 Behavioral (Psychology)
 Political (Political Science)
 Social (Sociology)

2. Organization

 System of Authority
 Network of Relationships
 Culture
 Set of Flow
 Processes: Stage in a lifecycle

3. Society

 Legal
 Macro Economics
 Political
 Ethics
 Cross-cultural

It is high time that we, in South Asia, study the above approach and, in line with global trends, develop an improved approach for management education in future.

TWELVE POINTS CHARTER FOR MANAGEMENT EDUCATION IN FUTURE

There is a need to introduce and inject new ideas for management education in future in South Asia. Based on experiences shared in this paper, various researches conducted and views exchanged with scholars, twelve points Charter for management education in future for South Asia is presented below:

1. In view of the diversified needs of the users, it is not practicable to suggest a uniform curriculum for management education. The users needs be carefully examined to offer courses of reading.
2.
First rate faculty with a missionary zeal be employed to inspire the business school participants.
3.
Careful selection of input be made after proper aptitude testing.
4.
Crackdown is the crying need against quack business schools which have spoiled MBA market.
5.
Integration of IT into business courses be ensured to produce IT environment oriented business graduates.
6.
For fresh graduate, a separate approach to develop MBAs be used to give them tools, integrating courses and concentration/specialization courses.
7.
Ordinarily executive business programs be offered to participants of mid-career with 5 to 8 years experience.
8.
First rate physical facilities with modern gadgets be developed.
9.
Fee structure be developed in line with market trends. Waiver may be allowed for needy and yet meritorious candidates.
10.
Emphasis be given on experimental learning.
11.
Functional silos of traditional management education be replaced by approach followed by IMPM. Self directed learning be encouraged.
12.
Continuous feedback be institutionalized.

Annex "A"

SIGNIFICANT DIMENSIONS OF LEADERS' PERSONALITIES

a) Thinking (04 Points)

1. Capacity to Abstract: to conceptualize, to organize, and integrate different data into a coherent frame of reference.
2.
Tolerance for Ambiguity: can stand confusion until things become clear.
3.
Intelligence: has the capacity not only to abstract, but also to be practical.
4.
Judgement: knows when to act.

b) Feelings & Inter-Relationships (11 Points)

5. Authority: has the feeling that he or she belongs in boss's role.
6.
Activity: takes a vigorous orientation to problems and needs of the organization.
7.
Achievement: oriented toward organization's success rather than personal aggrandizement.
8.
Sensitivity: able to perceive subtleties of other's feelings.
9.
Involvement: part of organization.
10.
Maturity: has good relationships with authority figures.
11.
Interdependence: accepts appropriate dependency needs of others as well as of him or herself.
12.
Articulateness: makes a good impression.
13.
Stamina: has physical as well as mental energy.
14.
Adaptability: manages stress free.
15.
Sense of Humour: does not take self too seriously.

c) Outward Behavior Characteristics (05 Points):

16. Vision: is clear about progression of his or her own life and career, as well where the organization should go.
17.
Perseverance: able to stick to a task and see it through regardless of the difficulties encountered.
18.
Personal Organization: has good sense of time.
19.
Integrity: has a well-established value system, which has been tested in various ways in the past.
20.
Social Responsibilities: appreciates the need to assume leadership with respect to that responsibility.

Annex "B"

THE TURNED ON ORGANIZATION

  • ENTHUSIASTIC CUSTOMERS

  • INSPIRED PEOPLE

  • FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE

8. Lead with Care
7.
Unleash the Power of People
6.
Measure well, Act fast
5.
Make Technology Your Servant
4.
Simplify, Simplify, Simplify
3.
Have the Courage to Set Bold Goals
2.
Make Every Customer Feel Special
1.
Building a Strong Foundation

  • Dow, R; Cook, S. Turned on: eight vital insights to

  • Energize your people, customers and profits,

  • New York, Harper Collris Publishers, 1996.

Annex "C"

MBA: LUXURY STYLE

a) Competent Leader

1. Human Resources Management
2.
Strategic Cost Analysis
3.
Corporate Finance
4.
Pricing Policy
5.
Information Systems and Operations Management
6.
Business Statistics & Predicting Sales Forecasts
7.
Business Economics

b) Managing Complexity

1. Strategic Management & Planning
2.
International Management of Services
3.
Tacit Dimensions in Luxury Business
4.
Luxury Companies Organization
5.
Intellectual Property Law and Brand Protection
6.
Cross - Cultural Team Building Workshop
7.
Management of joint Ventures and Alliances
8.
Negotiation
9.
International Marketing
10.
International Licensing & Distribution

c) Creative Management

1. Creativity Technique
2.
Managing Brand Equity
3.
Managing Creation
4.
Design Management
5.
Critical Thinking, Problem Identification and Problem Solving
6.
Entrepreneurships & New Product Development
7.
Semiotics

d) Competent Marketer

1. Marketing Management
2.
Consumer Behavior & Marketing Research
3.
Post Modern Consumer Culture and the Marketing of Luxury Brands
4.
Management of Luxury Brands
5.
Advertising
6.
Lalystee Simulation
7.
Specific Marketing Tools
8.
Brand Management
9.
Managing Retailing

e) Leadership Skills

1. Communication Skills
2.
Time Management Skills
3.
Group Management & Dynamics (In French)
4.
Personal Development Training Program

f) Cultured Leader

1. Fashion, From the Elite to the Universal
2.
Perfumes and Fragrances
3.
Oenology
4.
Design History and Theory