It is necessary to take sufficient diet to keep in
balanced state of the body.
By Dr. S.M.
Oct 08 - 14, 2001
The human body is usually built up of different
organic components and some of these are proteins, lipids, nucleic
acids, carbohydrates, etc. Further, these macromolecules are composed of
elements like carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur and
phosphorus. There are other elements, which form part of the human and
such elements are iron, manganese, zinc, copper, boron, molybdenum,
cobalt, chorine, iodine, lithium, nickle, selenium, tin, vanadium,
arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, aluminium, barium, and silicon.
Many enzymes are associated these elements and such
elements are as iron (cytochrome C, reductase, succinic dehydrogenase,
cytochrome oxidase, glutamic isomerase, liver transmethylase, peroxidase,
lactic dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase dglycero phsophate, NADH);
manganese (nitritereductase, pyruvate carboxylase, NADH reductase,
superoxide dismutase); zinc (I) -lactic cyoto chrome reductase, carbonic
anhydrase, carboxypeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase,
lutamic dehydrogenase); copper (cytochrome oxidase, laccase, uricase,
tyrosinase, monoamine oxidase, ascorbic acid oxidase, galactose oxidase);
molybdenum (aldehyde dehydrogenase, nitrogenase, xanthine oxidase,
formate dehydrogenase); cobalt (acid phosphomonoestrase, amino
polypeptidase, arginine desiomidase, glycylglycine dipeptidase) and
liver transmethylase), selenium (formic phosphotransferase,
decarboxydase, acyltransferase); sodium (adenosine triphosphatase);
potassium (proteinase, pyruvate kinase); calcium (cholinesterase,
apyrase); magnesium (hexokinase, fructokinase, pyruvic carboxylase,
phosphorylase); sulphur (NADP, NADPH); iodine (tyrosinase, dehydrogenase);
lithium (acid phosphomutase, cholinesterase).
Functions of elements involved in human body's
Phosphorus: Phosphorus is involved in protein, fat,
carbohydrates and muscle energy metabolism. ATP and ADP energy materials
are directly involved in the transfer of energy in the body. Calcium,
sulphur and magnesium are required by body for cell development and
transfer of ATP to ADP in the human body. The source of P are milk, egg,
yolk, lentils, meat, cheese, butter, chicken and grain.
Iron: Iron has been known to be an essential element
for human body. Its daily requirement is about 15 mg, which is stored in
liver and spleen. It is present as hemoglobin. Its deficiency causes
hemolytic anemia, stomatities, palpitation, exertion and reduce physical
Manganese: It is distributed in all tissues and
organs. It acts as cofactor in many enzymes. The body contains 10-20 mg
of Mn and its deficiency results in growth inhibition, abnormalities,
depressed reproduction and lipid metabolism. The sources of Fe are
liver, egg, yolk, wheat, meat, heart, shell fish, peaches, apples.
Zinc: Human body contains about 2-3 mg of zinc, which
is mainly concentrated in the liver, prostrate, muscles, bone. Daily
requirement is about 10-15 mg. Zinc deficiency result is retarded growth
and many abnormalities in human body. The sources of zinc are oysters,
cheese, meat, shell fish.
Copper: Copper is concentrated in brain and liver. It
is component of many enzymes. The requirement of copper is 2-5 mg and
its deficiency leads to cause iron metabolism impairment. Wilson's
disease is associated with copper deficiency in the body. Copper
toxicity leads to vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, etc. The sources of copper
are beverages, shell fish, yeast, nuts, almonds.
Boron: The human body contains very small amount of
boron, which is present in liver, blood, kidney, brain, muscles, lungs
and dental enamel. Its requirement is about 2.1 mg. The excessive use of
boric acid in the treatment of burn may increase the level of boron,
which may cause gastrointestinal disorder. Its source is cereal, citrus
Molybdenum: It is present in tissues, blood, dental
enamel, and with many enzymes. Its daily requirement is about 1.5 mg.
Cobalt: The human body contains about 1.2 mg of
cobalt mainly stored in bones and muscles. It is an integral part of
vitamin B1. The daily intake of this element is about 0.140.16 mg.
Cobalt chloride is used for treatment of hypertension as it lowers the
blood pressure to normal level, its source is tea, bean and peas.
Iodine: The. body contains 15-20 mg of iodine, which
is mainly concentrated in the thyroid gland and is used in the formation
of thyroid hormones. The suggested intake of iodine is 100-200 mg/day.
The deficiency of iodine causes thyroid gland disease. Iodine is
obtained from sea food, vegetable, water.
Nickle: Nickle, which was recognized as an essential
element in 1970 is present in human tissues, hair, and dental enamel. It
influences milk production. Many abnormalities in plasma cholesterol
level, liver glycogen. Nickle is a part of nickelplasmin, a metal
protein present in blood. Its daily uptake is about 400 mg. Higher
amounts of Ni accumulate in lungs and become toxic above 2-7 mg/day,
which cause respiratory tract infection. Nickle main source is from
vegetables, fruits and species.
Fluorine: Fluorine, which is present in the body as
fluoride ion was recognized as an essential element in 1930. It is
required for the growth of skeleton and teeth. The suitable daily intake
is in the range of 0.5-1.5 mg/day. Fluoride ion deficiency results in
dental disease. Its main source is potato, salmon, sardine, etc.
Selenium: It is mainly concentrated in the liver,
skin, muscles and kidney. Selenium forms complexes with As, Cd, Hg, Ni.
An average daily intake in the range of 130-200 ug, whereas a higher
amount above 225 ug produces toxic effects. It is present in liver,
skin, muscles and kidney. Its main source is cereal products, meat and
Silicon: Silicon is present in all body tissues, but
higher concentrations are present in skin and appendages It is present
in meat, cereals and spices. Daily intake varies from 1-1.2 g. A
constant Si level in blood is maintained and the excess amount excreted
through urine. Its main source is cereal, wheat, maize, sugar,
leguminous, plants and water.
There are other elements, which are needed by human
body in minor amount, but are essentials and these elements are:
chlorine, chromium, stannous, cadmium, arsenic, mercury, aluminum and
barium. A shortage of any of these elements adversely effects the growth
and development of human body.
Conclusion: The inorganic elements present in the
body are essential to the body system. These described elements are
involved in proteins, fats, carbohydrates and vitamins. Their shortage
in human body generally affects the normal health of a man. Therefore,
it is necessary to take sufficient diet to keep in balanced state of the