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Hrm/Hrd experience of Pakistan is briefly shared in this article. The topic is vast. However, in a summarized manner, this piece presents the Pakistan scenario.

By Prof. Dr. Khawaja Amjad Saeed
Sep 03 - 09, 2001

PART l: HRD: Macro aspects

Unfortunately investment in education from GOP side has not been a story of positive approach. Little practical steps were taken to ensure that education should be given top priority. In the past very little was invested as is apparent from the following table:


Share of Education in Development Plan of Pakistan


First Plan:1955-60



Second Plan: 1960-65



Third Plan: 1965-70



Fourth Plan: 1970-75



Fifth Plan: 1978-83



Sixth Plan: 1983-88



Seventh Plan: 1988-93



Eighth Pian: 1993-98

2.33 (P)


Ninth Plan: 1999-2000


Source: Various Development Plans and Economic Survey of Pakistan, 1999-2000, Table 11.3, p.141.

UNESCO recommended benchmark is around 5% to 7%. Currently there is a desire to increase the above ratio but unfortunately financial resources are lacking. Fortunately there is a light at the end of the tunnel as the following positive events have been happening. These include:

1. Growing interest of the private sector in establishing and operating educational institutions. Huge investment has been made in this respect through qualitative thrust.
2. Community Based Organizations (CBOs) have been growing in number with a strong theme of HRD. The current trends are in the area of literacy with IT backed education.
3. Niche approach to IT is being followed by GOP. Investment in developing professionally qualified manpower is being directly made through scholarships of substantial amounts to enable the appropriate persons to pursue their education at Masters and Ph.D. level.
4. Institutions of HRD are being strengthened and public Universities are creating synergy by establishing strong linkages.
5. Quality concerns in education are growing due to healthy competition in private and public sector Universities.

However, revolutionary plan is needed to achieve high percentage of functional literacy which will usher in a new and prosperous era of prosperity in Pakistan.

Current position of educational institutions in Pakistan in public sector is tabulated below:

Table 2

Educational institutions in Pakistan







1. Primary Schools (000)




2. Middle Schools (000)




3. High Schools (000)




4. Secondary Vocational Institutions




5. Arts and Science Colleges




6 Professional Colleges




7. Universities.




p. planned.

Source: Various Development Plans and Economic Survey of Pakistan),1999-2000, Table 11.3, p.141.


The first generation of Pakistan mainly consisted of shop-keepers, traders and merchants. They continued their businesses with family oriented approach. The second generation acquired education at home and abroad. They were cut out to run the enterprises with a corporate approach. However, they received a bad jolt as the early 1970s saw nationalization of industrial, commercial, financial institutions and infrastructure organizations. 1980s passed without any serious HRD agenda. 1990s saw change of political Governments from one political party to another in two rounds. Absence of long term economic policies was not a favourable factor for solid growth of HRD in corporate sector.

The dismal picture, however, continued to be countered by entrepreneurial initiatives of private sector and multinational sector.

The success story of multinational sector and enlightened and forward looking private sector is mainly due to firm belief in HRD.

Private sector initiative has been unleashed by the return of several qualified persons from abroad who has set up management training and management consulting firms and are rendering useful services in accelerating HRD revolution in Pakistan. Modern technologies are being developed. New management techniques e.g. ABC, ABB, Target Costing, Re-engineering, TQM, BSC, HRA, EVA, IC etc. are being taught for implementation. A wave of change management is unleashing itself in today's Pakistan. The tempo is getting quantum jump.

Various HRD programs for executive training have been conducted by various management development institutions in Pakistan. These consists of Universities, management development institutions and large business houses. Topics included, broadly speaking, were as under:

1. Strategic HRM.
2. Human Resource Planning.
3. Staff Acquisition and Retention.
4. Training & Development.
5. Career Planning and Management.
6. Performance Management and Appraisal.
7. Compensation Design and Administration.
8. Transformational Leadership.
9. International HRM.
10. Organization Communication.

In the past Pakistan Institute of Management (PIM) has rendered glorious service for serving the noble cause of HRD. This public sector institution deserves full appreciation. Spread over Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad, excellent courses are being offered as part of HRD effort.

Management Association of Pakistan (MAP) has been rendering HRD service for the last over several decades. Their initiative to invite foreign experts to share knowledge and new skills has been a positive approach in HRD movement.

Karachi based Pakistan Society of Training and Development has done an excellent role in positive contributions in HRD.

Several public sector Universities and some private Universities have been performing excellent role for HRD. Case analysis and group work has been instrumental in HRD. Cases were published by PIM. A publishing house has published cases in finance prepared by teachers of a private University of Lahore. The author contributed a monograph on case study approach which was published by University Grants Commission (UGC), Islamabad. Besides two books (Management Cases and Regional Management Cases) were edited by the author and were published in Pakistan. International editions of two books namely Marketing Cases and Management Cases edited by the author were published in India.

Business executives have been benefiting from study abroad in top business schools of North America and Europe. With developed talent they are serving the corporate sector. Future augurs well for the corporate sector through a strong belief in HRD.


Several CBOs have been rendering services in the area of HRD. A brief review of some sampled out CBOs/NGOs is now given below:

Aga Khan Rural Support Program (AKRSP).

Several rural support programs have been going on in Pakistan. However the world famous one is AKRSP. On this pattern, replication has taken place. As part of HRD contribution, the following shared vision for rural development has been followed:

1. Poverty Alleviation: Expanding opportunities of means of wealth generation, credit and enterprise development.
2. Education including computer literacy.
3. Social organization, capacity building of local communities, water supply, family planning and basic health etc.

Institution for HRD

Institute for Development Studies and Practice, Quetta, Balochistan, has been recently established to assist in the process of establishing and managing an institution for the development of human resources at the following levels:

1. Community.
2. District.
3. Provincial.
4. National.

Project objectives include:

1. To prepare young men and women in the field of community development, having awareness of the conceptual foundations of the participatory process.
2. To increase the total number of development practitioners in Pakistan.
3. To arrange for development training of the same high standard as that provided by foreign institutions of development education.

Pakistan Computer Bureau (PCB).

It has been increasingly realized that effective utilization of IT largely depends on the availability of trained manpower. For catering to the overall requirements of Government Organizations, PCB has drawn up a comprehensive HRD program comprehensive intensive and short courses. The following package of courses has been developed.

1. Management Development Programs.
2. Technical/Professional Manpower Training Program.
3. Special Training Program.

The above programs are expected to meet the following aims:

1. Equip IT users with broad knowledge and understanding of basic concepts of computers.
2. Potential areas where IT can be used.
3. Planning for IT projects and managing their development.
4. Managing their development and implementation.

The programs developed to achieve the above four aims have been identified as under:

1. Systems Analysis and Designs.
2. Programming Languages.
3. Micro-Computer Applications
4. Office Automation.
5. Operating Systems:

  • JDOS



6. Software packages.
7. 4 GLs.

The expected outputs by following the above programs are visualized as under:

1. Design of IT based systems.
2. Preparation of Plans for implementation of IT Projects.
3. Software development techniques.
4. Programming languages and operating systems.


HRD belief is a pre-requisite for accelerating socio-economic development in Pakistan. It is hoped that greater awareness will be growing at all levels Government, Community, Private, Public and Multinational sectors for HRD movement with a revolutionary spirit. Total commitment (Financial, Physical and Moral) is needed as a solid logistic to HRD.

*Former President, South Asia Federation of Accountants (1997), Association of Management Development Institutions of South Asia (AMDISA:1993-96), Pro Vice-Chancellor & Founder Director, IBA, University of the Punjab, Lahore, and currently serving as Dean: Executive Programs, Punjab College of Business Administration, Lahore (Pakistan).