Mango — An important fruit of Pakistan
We have to improve the exports
By Dr. S.M. Alam & M. A. Khan,
NIA, Tandojam, Pakistan.
June 25 - July 01, 2001
The word Mango is the British pronunciation of the
Mankay, the Tamil word for the fruit, because it is found in most
abundance in Southern India, around Madras. The mango is held in high
esteem all over the world and is considered to be native of
Indo-Pakistan Sub-continent and eastern Asia. They are to be found in
nearly all over the tropical regions of the World, therefore known as
"The King" of all fruits. Mango is cultivated around
February/early March, when the cold weather begins to subside and the
danger of destruction through frost disappears. It comes in market
early in the May and remains in market till August/September. There
are more than 1300 varieties of the mango, which are cultivated in the
Indo-Pak Sub-continent. In Sindh, there are more than 125 varieties of
mango. As we get mangoes from Balochistan and NWFP, but the main
source are Sindh and Punjab. In Pakistan we get more than 10 lacs tons
production, out of which Sindh provides 50% i.e. more than 5 lacs
tons. Multan and Mirpurkhas are the main regions, where we get mangoes
in large quantity. The maximum production, we get from Rahim Yar Khan,
where mangoes are cultivated on more than 26 thousand acres.
The main field of mango is obtained from District
Rahim Yar Khan, Rahimabad, Jamaldin wali, Sadiqabad, Shaikh Wahan,
Mianwali Qureshan Zahirpur, Bagho Bahar, Tirandah Mohammad Panah of
district Rahim Yar Khan are very famous for mango production. Whereas,
Hyderabad, Tandojam, Tando Allahyar, Tando Jan Muhammad, Digri, Nawab
Shah, Naushero Feroz, Khairpur Mirus, Ghotki, Bahawalpur, Shuja abad,
MuzzaffarGarh, KoatAddu, Khanewal, Sahiwal, Vihari, Okara, Faisalabad,
Jhang, Toba Tek Singh and Sargodha are also very famous for mango
production. There are many varieties which are famous in Pakistan, but
some varieties which are very common are: Sindhri, Langra, Chaunsa,
Fajri, Samar Bahist, Anwar Ratole, Dasehri, Saroli, Tuta Pari, Neelam,
Maldah, Collector, Bengan Phali, etc.
As mango is named as "King of the Fruits"
similarly, Sindhri is said to be "The King of Mango",
because this variety is top in Pakistan. Sindhri is yellow in colour,
and test is very sweet. Sindhri mangoes were first brought by father
of late Prime Minister Muhammad Khan Junejo from Bombay and then
cultivated at Sindhri and it was named by his father Din Muhammad
Junejo as "Sindhri". Since 1996-97, Pakistan was on 4th
position, but according to Jang Midweek Magazine dated 12th July 2000,
Pakistan is on 5th rank. India is still on top on the production of 12
World Mango Production. Year-1999
Brazil 0.60 million ton.
China 2.1 million ton.
Egypt 0.23 million ton.
India 12 million ton.
Indonesia 0.60 million ton.
Mexico 1.5 million ton.
Pakistan 0.91 millionton.
Philippines 0.93 million ton.
Thailand 1.25 million ton.
World product 23.80 million ton.
In the year 1999 Pakistan exported about 40.2
thousand tons, whereas Mexico stands first in the export of 209.4
thousand tons. Here is a list of ten topmost mango producing countries
of the year-l999.
Brazil 39.2 thousand tons.
The point of concern is that the yield per hectare,
10 tons on the average, is not increasing. This yield is about
one-third, when compared to other mango growing countries.
Mango Factors: A number of factors are
responsible for the low yield including high water table and salinity,
inadequate and unbalanced fertilization and lacs of plant protection
measures. The widespread problem of waterlogging and salinity is a
major threat to mango cultivation and the province of Sindh is the
worst affected. For successful cultivation of mango orchards, the
water table must be maintained at 3 meters from the ground surface.
The mango yield considerably decreases, when water table comes to the
level of 1.5 meters. The desired level could be achieved by the
provision of a suitable drainage system.
Mango fruit is rich in vitamins, A, B and C, and
contains water, protein, sugar, fats, calcium, phosphorus, fiber and
iron. Mangoes according to latest scientific research as well as of
folk wisdom are known to increase the body resistance against
dysentery, cholera and tuberculosis. It is said "an apple a day
keeps the doctor away", this is equally to of the mango.
According to our local tradition, raw mango seasoned with a pinch of
salt quenches thirst and loss of iron in the body, which occurs due to
excessive sweating during the sultry summer. Although Pakistan
produces 10 lacs tons per year, but in export, Pakistan is quite far
behind with other countries. Uptil 1950s, mango cultivation was rather
scanty and a lot of commodity used to come from India, through
travellers. However, in the beginning of 60s, some landlords brought
strains from India and grafted them in Pakistan. Over due course of
time, Pakistan over took India in mango cultivation and right now
produces varieties which cater not only to the domestic market, but
overseas too. The chief market of Pakistan, mangoes are the Middle
Eastern countries. Pakistan also exports these mangoes to other
countries like Singapore, Norway, Germany, France, Japan and South
However, since some years, unfortunately the export
of this fruit is facing an uptil struggle on account of tough
competition from other Asian countries mainly India. Latin American
countries like Brazil having now also come into the field and Pakistan
near monopoly is now being challenged. There could be many reasons for
this showing down of exports. One of these reasons is the traditional
manner of crop production and halfhearted efforts at research.
Moreover, we should never forget that the buyers in the world market
are not just interested in prices. They also want good presentation.
We have to constantly watch for trends, choices and preferences of the
buyers in the world markets.
Another thing, the processing should be made with
the latest machines and packing should not only be fancy and eye
catching but durable. It should ensure that the fruit would not rot in
transit and that the quality would not diminish in the process.
According to the study conducted by International Trade Centre in
Geneva, Switzerland about 30 % of the food export of all over
developing countries, one of which Pakistan is the one, perishes,
before it reaches to the foreign market. This is because of the
defective packing. Therefore, we have to improve it by all means to
get more foreign exchange from other countries by exporting the good
quality of mangoes.