The gap between the technological skills needed for the new
economy and the traditional education institutions is increasing fast. There is
an urgent need to identify the knowledge skills needed for the new economy and
then developing these skills through training and education. There are two
strategies to achieve Human Resources Development objectives in Pakistan. One is
through the changes within the curriculum of our education institutions; at
Colleges, Universities, Polytechnics levels. New changes within the curriculum
should satisfy the demands of the industries and the new economy. The second
strategy is developing Human Resources Development Centres in the country. These
Human Resources Development Centres will provide young graduates, the skills
needed for the new economy; information technology, software and Internet
As we all know that the traditional tools of skills and
knowledge accumulation are developed around traditional degrees; MA, BA, MSc,
BE, etc. These traditional education centers and degrees are no more relevant to
the new economy. On the other hand the traditional job centers including
government departments and ministries (food, agriculture, health, education,
communication etc) public sector organizations such as PIA, WAPDA, KDA, KESC,
public banks etc are no more major employment center. Both traditional education
and traditional job centres are disappearing very fast.
The new economy is the digital economy, this economy is based
on knowledge workers and knowledge products. Nevertheless, it must be very clear
that business fundamentals remain the same and that is product and services.
Product and services still need to be produce and provided to the customers
locally and globally. Nevertheless, the new economy and Internet economy
provided the tools to reach and satisfy customer everywhere in the world, much
faster and much cheaper.
Internet techonology and communication technology changing
everything and influencing every business and non-business organisations. Even
lifestyles, food habits, reading habits and our learning needs are moving from
being generalists to specialists. Agriculturists are looking into bio (genetic)
engineering to improve the quality and quantity of the crop. Accountants are
moving in the direction of financial analysts. Engineering moving towards
communication and network engineering, information technologist, computer
engineering etc. All these new professions were unknown ten years ago if not
five years ago. It is very loud and clear that knowledge and skills have to be
compatible with the external environment. Then the question is how to face this
phenomenon and what should we do as a nation.
There are three alternate possibilities:
1) Isolating ourselves from the rest of the world or
2) Mass-migrate from the large rural and suburban sites to the cities, or
3) Develop Human Resources for the dynamic world. First and second
alternates are inconceivable, third is the only possibility. Then the question
is what is Human Resources Development and how to develop it? Human Resource
Development can be understood from two perspectives. The development sector
defines the term from the socio-economic development point of view, while the
corporate sector (private business) defines it from the perspective of
professional skills and capabilities needed to perform task in the new economy.
Conceptually the HRD centres provide the short-term skill
training in areas identified through the Training Needs Analysis (TNA) in the
industry and in the education institutions. Through this short and medium term
training, it is hoped that the unemployed graduates will get job opportunities
in the new economy industries. To answer the second part how to develop the
Human Resources Development concept we have conducted a province wide research,
the objective of study was;
• To determine the essential professional skills needed by
the young graduates to fulfil the requirement of the new economy.
• To conduct a survey within different colleges of Karachi
to determine the deficiency of skills among students.
• To conduct a survey within the industry of Karachi (via
Human Resources Managers of respective industry / firm) to determine the most
essential skills for future employees.
Industry survey results: This section provides the
findings from the industry skill survey. The industry skill survey was conducted
within the Manufacturing, Trading and Service business organizations (36 firms)
in Sindh. These included multinationals, local, private and public enterprises.
The objective of this survey was to determine the essential professional skills
needed by the future employers and to perceive the requirement of the industry.
1. Core Business Activity of the surveyed
Manufacturing 58%, Trading 05%, Services 37%
2. Type of Enterprise: Multinational 47%, Local 53%
Four main skill areas are most essential from industry point
of view for new employees
Most business organizations hire MBA, B.Com. BBA, B.Sc. BCS,
MCS, CA, ICMA, and BE graduates. None of the company indicated hiring BA, MA and
However, few did show policy to hire Lawyers and Agriculture
graduates. Survey results also indicate that jobs are only available for the
highly skilled and the highly educate graduates especially in computer-related
Student survey results: This section provides the
findings from the student skill survey. The student survey was conducted, among
23 colleges, all over the Sindh, including government, private and professional
colleges. The objective of this survey was to determine the essential
professional skills needed by the students to find jobs in the industry. Student
sample size was 250 students, from intermediates, BA, B.Sc., and B. Com level.
Four main skill areas are most essential from the student
point of view, for getting the jobs in the industry.