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Poultry farming in Pakistan

  1. Wheat: New support price
  2. APTMA's role in textile and exports
  3. Poultry farming in Pakistan
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  5. Manufacturing Resource Planning

Poultry farming in Pakistan has developed as an important sub-sector of livestock

By Dr. S. M. Alam and M. A. Khan
Nuclear Institute of Agriculture
Tando Jam, Pakistan
Aug 07 - 13, 2000

The poultry farming has now become one of the most dynamic associated parts of agriculture throughout the world. Poultry culture in South Asian countries is expanding rapidly and the rate of growth of commercial layer and broiler (meat producing) farms is phenomenal to meet the ever increasing demand for proteins through poultry meet and eggs. In Pakistan, poultry industry had made considerable contribution to food production and plays a vital role in the economy of the country. Raising of poultry in Pakistan has virtually proven a profitable enterprise as it is the best source of cheap, palatable and nutritious food protein. The poultry production commenced in Pakistan in 1963. Hen birds were mostly maintained in the backyard of the houses in villages on a small scale, with very little investment by the villagers in terms of money and material. The return on those birds was too little, and there was hardly any attraction for investments to operate the same on large scales. Poultry as on a commercial scale in the private sector started due to pioneering effect made by PIA in 1965, when the first modern hatchery unit in Karachi was established. Later on, the investments have taken keen interest in this sector, as was result of which substantial development has taken place towards expansion of this industry. The commercial poultry farming emerged through the combined efforts and foresight of the government and the private enterprises. Now commercial poultry production is concentrated around the large urban centers in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab and initially at Karachi, Lahore with the passage of time, it is now fairly well spread all over the country. In the provinces of Sindh, there are farms in Mirpurkhas, Sukhar, Nawabshah as well as in small cities. Similarly, in the province of the Punjab, poultry farms have been well established in the areas of Rawalpindi, Faisalabad, Multan, Lahore, Bhawalpur, Rahimyar Khan, Mianwali. Poultry produced in Pakistan is being developed through two management systems i.e commercial farming and rural poultry farming. The commercial poultry farming sector is a classic example of private ector enterprise with a phenomenal growth of 20 to 25 % per annum. The achievement of this rapid growth was made to the incentives granted by the government from time to time, like liberal financing and credit, income tax exemption, duty free import of grand parent and parent flocks, machinery and poultry farm equipments, such as hatcheries, cages, brooders, feed ingredients such as soybean, meal, maize, and sorghum for use in poultry feeds, in addition to liberal and easy facility to obtain loans from commercial banks and financial institutions. Now the large scale investment and proper incentives have resulted in the establishment of infrastructure comprising of 252 hatcheries with capacity to produce 346 million day- old chicks per annum, 141 feed mills with the capacity to produce 2540 thousand tons of compounds feed per annum and 13154 poultry farms with the capacity to produce 98 million broilers. The present total poultry population is estimated to be 319 million, out of which 137 million is rural (44%), 160 million broilers (50%), 17 million layers (5%) and 5 million breeding (2%) stock annually. These figures speak of the potential that has been established in the country to increase production of eggs and poultry meat thereby reducing further the gap of availability of animal protein foods. Modern poultry farming has a special importance for countries such as Pakistan. Because it is being an easy and relatively cheap method of raising dietary standard of the people. The shortages of animal protein in Pakistan is estimated at 0.93 million tonnes on the basis of human population of 140 million. The average consumption of animal protein is a meager 17g as against the recommended daily requirement of 28g. This shortage of protein can well be managed with increase in the production of poultry meat at a reasonable cost.

Some of the important breeds of the world such as buff rock, leghorn, light Sussex, Rhodes Island red are also hatched successfully in the country at desired traits. A laying bird produces an average of 250 eggs per year and the average live weight of the broiler is recommended as 1200 grams ( or 1.2 kg), at 8 weeks of age. Pakistan produces 6.5 thousand million eggs and 340 thousand tonnes poultry meat. The consumption of poultry feed increased with their ages. It reached its peak (135g/bird/ day) at 25 weeks age. Then it declined slightly reaching 124g / bird/ day at 33 weeks of age. There are also some local breeds, which are highly productive and are more adaptive to the local conditions. These important poultry breeds of fowls are cross bred with each other to produce. The product is concentrated around the large urban centers in the provinces of Sindh, Punjab and NWFP. The majority of such farmers are generally in and around the cities like Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, and Faisalabad. The capacity of the layers farm varies from 2000 to 20000 birds and that of the broilers farms from 103 to 403 birds per annum. The higher cost of poultry feed is mainly due to the increase in the price of the various ingredients particularly fishmeal in their poultry feed. In these days prices of poultry are very high due to the cost of ingredients needed for the manufacturer of the feed meal.

Approaches to increase production.

In order to increase the production of poultry the following approaches are considered necessary for implementation. Commercial poultry sectors be continued to boost up substantial marine in the productivity.

i) Rural poultry sector be enhanced.

ii) Rearing of traits be introduced on large scale commercial production ducks, partridges and pigeons rearing be introduced. Encourage establishment of poultry farms in private sectors engaged in the production of birds for rural development to improve food availability. Coarse grain production must be increased under target oriented programme like major crops. Price support must be granted. Oil cakes/ meat production can be increased through increasing oilseed crops. To check out easy formula to evolve cheap poultry ratio formulas ratio formula using agriculture and industrial by-products.

To improve poultry health and extension services vaccination against contagious disease must be carried to several 60% of rural poultry production as against existing 25% to establish locally disease reference laboratory.

To establish small poultry units of varying sizes in the villages to increase production of village level. Private sectors be encouraged to establish disease diagnostic laboratory and vaccine production unit to improve poultry marketing. To establish poultry processing plants and cold stores to provide ready market for broilers. To establish poultry marketing center at different places in cities and towns. Price support and broilers may be grounded. This can be implemented through processing plants. To work out cost of production of eggs and to announce whole sale rates of eggs on quarterly basis. To maintain check on the price of day old chicks and poultry feeds to take measure to maintain stability of price and quality. Poultry production during the last 35 years has played a commendable role in shortening the gap of availability of animal protein foods. In order to shorter the gap further within shortest possible time, it has became necessary that poultry, mutton, beef etc are also introduced on small and large scale both in public and private sectors. The possible feasible sources are rear of quails, ducks, pheasant, partridges, pigeons etc. All these sources are quite producing with short duration. It is observed that with the introduction of these techniques, the gap of animal protein food will be minimised within a short period.

Poultry feed and prices: Poultry feed gained importance with the emergence of poultry farming on a wide scale in the country. At present, poultry feed is produced by commercial feed mills as well as by home mixture. There are several feed mills located in the different parts of main cities of Pakistan. The different ingredients required for making poultry feed are broken or coarse grains (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum barley, dried sea food, dried blood of animals, broken pulses and different vitamins). The poultry feed by its quality and price is the major factor in determining the cost of poultry products i.e. eggs and broilers and profitability of the poultry farm. The prices of feed have been constantly increasing. Due to recent global changes in the price structure of the cereal grains and other feed stuffs, the poultry industry at present is handicapped on account of high feed cost which have gone over to more than 60% of the total cost of production.

Advantages: The poultry meat and egg production over many decades have shown positive growth in the overall performances of the livestock sector and it has now reached a stage where its impact is obvious on the national economy of the country. The supply of eggs and poultry methods based on two distinct methods of production small scale village production and modern commercial methods in and around big cities. Poultry keeping business is one of the most promising source of additional income. Besides, this poultry farming has a number of advantages. It produces much needed protein, food, it serves as a source of income and employment to many and it has good returns. Poultry keeping is becoming more and more capital intensive, and it is very profitable. The income from poultry business begins to emerge within 8 to 9 weeks for broiler or 20 to 22 weeks for layers. A broiler is a young male or female bird under the age of 10 weeks. These are generally fast growing breeds reared and marketed for meat. Depending on feed and management broiler mature in 8 weeks weighing nearing 2-2.5 kg and the broiler consume about 4 kg of feed in the period of 6 to 8 weeks is the usual age for marketing. Most breeders rear broilers to be ready for sale during festivals when demand of profit is high. A layer of mature age generally lays 250 -300 eggs. These eggs provide high quality protein to the house hold. In addition to eggs and meat poultry provide manure that is of great value on the farm. It has been observed that nearly 40 hens or deep litter yields about 1000 kg of manure per year. The income from layers (hens) begins to appear within 8 to 10 weeks, for broilers or 18 to 20 weeks for layers. According to the economic survey (94-95), 2.35 kg / capita per year eggs were available in Pakistan during this period.

Disadvantages: It is a well known fact that poultry farming is a profitable business but it has also some disadvantages some disease such as Newcastale disease, Marek's disease, infectious bronchitis, gum-boro disease, fowl pox, myco-plasmosis, coccidiosis, lymphoid, adino virus hydro-pericardium etc. are very common in the poultry chicken. These diseases affect very quickly and have a tremendous effects on the growth of the birds. The excess uses of meat also has ill-effects on the health of their users, because the feed they eat contains lots of unhygenic ingredients. Therefor the chickens should be vaccinated regularly and properly.

Conclusion: It has been observed during the last thirty five years that poultry farming in Pakistan has developed as an important sub-sector of livestock This expansion continues to fill the genuine gaps of the animal protein and should be fully encouraged in order to promote the welfare and prosperity of the people by providing them with a nutritious balanced diet.