Pakistan is a developing country that belongs to an underdeveloped capitalist market economy. The economy is dominated by agriculture, whose agricultural population accounts for 48% of the total population and 25% of GDP. The main crops in Pakistan are cotton, wheat, rice, sugar cane, etc. and cotton is Pakistan’s main cash crop, which accounts for 5% of the world’s total output, ranking the fifth largest cotton producing country in the world. There are large irrigation systems that provide favorable water conditions for food and cash crops in the Indus Plain and the Northern Valley, which known as granaries. Therefore, food is basically self-sufficient in Pakistan.
Pakistan’s industrial output accounts for 24% of the national economy, including the textile, metallurgical and metal processing industries, fuel and power industries. Among them, the cotton-based textile industry is the pillar industry of Pakistan’s national economy. Energy, IT and small and medium industries are the fastest growing sectors in recent years.
As a major pioneering project of the ‘Belt and Road Initiative’, the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor has the largest number of projects under construction and the fastest progress, nine projects have been completed and 13 projects are under construction. The corridors cover four major areas, namely ports, transportation infrastructure, energy，and industrial cooperation. In the past five years, Pakistan’s economic development has grown steadily, with an average GDP growth rate of 4.77%. Foreign direct investment in Pakistan increased from US$650 million in 2012 to US$2.2 billion in 2018, of which US$1.1 billion came from China. The average annual income of its people increased from $1,334 to $1,641. The corridor created 70,000 direct jobs for local people. It is estimated that the corridor will create 700,000 jobs for Pakistan from 2017 to 2030. The statistic shows the gross domestic product (GDP) in Pakistan from 2009 to 2019. GDP is an important indicator of a country’s economic power. In 2018, Pakistan’s gross domestic product amounted to around 312.57 billion US dollars.
Pakistan has abundant human resources, but its labor quality is low. Therefore, improving the knowledge and skills of workers to meet the requirements of modern society is a long-term goal of Pakistani education. In order to develop good education, Pakistan has signed a number of international education agreements, including the Education for All Program, the Millennium Development Goals – Joint Statement on Education and Dakar Action Framework Agreement, etc. In 2009, the Pakistani government is committed to providing excellent quality of education to children and adolescents in order to fully exploiting their potential to make a greater contribution to social and national development. Under the guidance of Pakistan’s constitutional amendments, Pakistan’s provincial governments signed a joint statement pledging to ensure that children receive compulsory education that is free of charge through legislation and other means. From these Pakistani government actions, it can be seen that the Pakistani government attaches special importance to its education. There is primary education, secondary education, higher education，and adult education.
Primary education in Pakistan is divided into two phases: primary school and junior high school. Primary school is a five-year system, and children can get enrolled in school at the age of 5. The students can enter middle school when finishing their study in primary school. The curriculum offered at the elementary school includes language, mathematics, science, Islamic teaching, health and sports, and art. The courses like English and vocational courses will be added in junior high school. Both primary and junior high schools encourage students to observe, explore, experiment, practice and emphasize the cultivation of students’ love of labor. In addition, special training practice courses will be set up in junior high schools in order to further enhance students’ practical ability. There are also a variety of internship workshops to help students improve their practical skills in all aspects.
Pakistan’s secondary education provides students with skills support and professional ethics training. It is a very important part of the Pakistani education system. It is managed by the secondary education bureaus of various counties. The secondary education system in Pakistan is a four-year system. In the first two years, all of the students must study cultural compulsory courses, including English, Arithmetic, History, Pakistani Studies and General Science, Puslin Studies, and vocational skills courses. The vocational courses are designed for students who no longer study in the school and have a skill in society so that they can work smoothly in the society. Pakistani secondary schools have strong teaching staff and complete teaching facilities. Like primary schools, one of the categories is mainly set up for students with good family economic conditions. The tuition fees are high and English teaching is the main course. Another category recruits ordinary students, and the tuition is low The main class teaching is Urdu.
Higher education in Pakistan includes universities and professional colleges. The principal presides in universities will appoint the vice preside directly in universities. Besides, the principal presides directly manages the university’s financial affair. The vice president will support the university’s daily affairs under the leadership of the university council and the main executive board. The highest governing body of the universities of Pakistan is the council and the board of directors, which consists of non-professionals and professionals nominated by university student representatives and principals. The academic institution of the university is an academic committee composed of the principal, department head and some teaching staff. The main task is to formulate the school management policy, arrange the study course, stipulate academic standards, and award the degree.
Adult education in Pakistan is the responsibility of the provincial education system. Adult education generally uses the existing faculty and teaching equipment to teach adults in the evening. The Literacy and Popular Education Committee, which specializes in literacy education, was established in 1981. With the support of the local education system, the committee conducted literacy campaigns throughout the country and encouraged illiterate people to participate in literacy education, What’s more, they also launched literacy activities through modern mobile communications such as television and the Internet.
Education programs have persisted for many years, and the literacy rate of residents over 10 years old in Pakistan’s provinces has increased significantly. On the basis of literacy education, the federal government also develops adult degree education. The federal government is responsible for coordinating, supervising, evaluating and providing technical support, and local governments and universities are responsible for the specific implementation. For example, the Iqbal Open University in Islamabad responded to the call of the federal government to carry out television education, which has effectively reduced the adult illiteracy rate in Pakistan.
Although the Pakistani Constitution gives high status to education, the progress of education has been hampered by an insufficient fund and the national economic level. The current problems in education in Pakistan mainly include the enrollment rate of primary schools, which does not guarantee the final graduation rate and the quality of education. Faced with the above problems, the Pakistani government and the education sectors are also taking active measures to resolve them. For example, it focuses on caring for children and rural children in the poor areas, providing free education and non-formal free education for them through non-official schools such as social education institutions, private schools and home schools. The government also strongly encourages parents to send the children to go to school through television and other publicity. In terms of financial input, the government will increase investment in education, train excellent teachers and strengthen the updating of school curriculum.