Sir Syed Ahmad Khan known as the founder of Two-Nation Theory in the modern era was born in Delhi on October 17, 1817 and died on March 27, 1898 Aligarh, India.
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan not only created awareness among the Muslims of Sub-continent about the significance of modern, scientific education, but he also advocated their case in front of the British Empire in a strong manner. He laid the foundation of academic pursuits. Pakistan now has 188 universities with a remarkably increased funding for higher education sector.
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, once said poverty results in increased crime rate. “We have a solution to poverty and crimes in development of knowledge economy.” He maintained that acquiring the knowledge of Quran is imperative side-by-side with pursuance of modern education.
Pakistani nation is indebted to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, who was a visionary and laid the foundation of educational institutions like Government Muhammad Anglo Oriental College in the Sub-Continent.
Sir Syed was a visionary leader who pulled the downtrodden Muslims out of the darkness of ignorance. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan awakened the Muslims and rectified their direction in difficult times by guiding them towards acquiring education. He stressed the need for following Sir Syed Ahmed Khan teachings in order to make Pakistan a prosperous country. The nation is duty bound to remember its heroes who contributed to the well-being of Muslims.
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was a great reformer, educator, jurist and politician of the 19th century, but he may rightly be called the chief architect and inspired the thought process and philosophy that ultimately led to the creation of Pakistan.
He was the unique force that pushed the discouraged Muslims of the post-1857 India to empower themselves by acquiring education. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, in his teachings, has stressed significantly upon the training of youth in the light of Islam. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan did preach acquiring modern education, but he never allowed any compromise on commandments of Quran and Sunnah.
Sir Syed’s greatest achievement was his Aligarh Movement, which was primarily an educational venture. He established Gulshan School at Muradabad in 1859, Victoria School at Ghazipur in 1863, and a scientific society in 1864.
When Sir Syed was posted at Aligarh in 1867, he started the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental School in the city. He got the opportunity to visit England in 1869-70. During his stay, he studied the British educational system and appreciated it. On his return home he decided to make M. A. O. High School on the pattern of British boarding schools. The School later became a college in 1875.
The status of University was given to the college after the death of Sir Syed in 1920. M. A. O. High School, College and University played a big role in the awareness of the Muslims of South Asia.
Unlike other Muslim leaders of his time, Sir Syed was of the view that Muslims should have friendship with the British if they want to take their due rights. To achieve this he did a lot to convince the British that Muslims were not against them. On the other hand, he tried his best to convince the Muslims that if they did not befriend the British, they could not achieve their goals.
Sir Syed wrote many books and journals to remove the misunderstandings between Muslims and the British. The most significant of his literary works were his pamphlets “Loyal Muhammadans of India” and “Cause of Indian Revolt”.
He also wrote a commentary on the Bible, in which he attempted to prove that Islam is the closest religion to Christianity. Sir Syed asked the Muslims of his time not to participate in politics unless and until they got modern education. He was of the view that Muslims could not succeed in the field of Western politics without knowing the system.
He was invited to attend the first session of the Indian National Congress and to join the organization but he refused to accept the offer. He also asked the Muslims to keep themselves away from the Congress and predicted that the party would prove to be a pure Hindu party in the times to come.
By establishing the Muhammadan Educational Conference, he provided Muslims with a platform on which he could discuss their political problems. In the beginning of 1898 he started keeping abnormally quiet. For hours he would not utter a word to friends who visited him.
His family on the maternal and paternal side had close contacts with the Mughal court. His maternal grandfather, Khwajah Farid was a Wazir in the court of Akbar Shah II. His paternal grandfather Syed Hadi held a mansab and the title of Jawwad Ali Khan in the court of Alamgir II. His father, Mir Muttaqi, had been close to Akbar Shah since the days of his prince-hood. Syed Ahmad’s mother, Aziz-un-Nisa, took a great deal of interest in the education and upbringing of her son. She imposed a rigid discipline on him and Sir Syed himself admitted that her supervision counted for much in the formation of his character.
The early years of Sir Syed’s life were spent in the atmosphere of the family of a Mughal noble. There was nothing in young Syed’s habits or behavior to suggest that he was different from other boys, though he was distinguished on account of his extraordinary physique. As a boy he learnt swimming and archery, which were favorite sports of the well-to-do class in those days.
Sir Syed received his education under the old system. He learnt to read the Holy Quran under a female teacher at his home. After this, he was put in the charge of Maulvi Hamid-ud-Din, the first of his private tutors. Having completed a course in Persian and Arabic, he took to the study of mathematics, which was a favorite subject of the maternal side of his family. He later became interested in medicine and studied some well-known books on the subject. However, he soon gave it up without completing the full course.
At the age of 18 or 19 his formal education came to an end but he continued his studies privately. He started taking a keen interest in the literary gatherings and cultural activities of the city. The death of his father in 1838 left the family in difficulties. Thus young Syed was compelled at the early age of 21 to look for a career. He decided to enter the service of the East India Company.
He started his career as Sarishtedar in a court of law. He became Naib Munshi in 1839 and Munshi in 1841. In 1858 he was promoted and appointed as Sadar-us-Sadur at Muradabad. In 1867 he was promoted and posted as the judge of the Small Causes Court. He retired in 1876. He spent the rest of his life for Aligarh College and the Muslims of South Asia.
Medical aid proved ineffective. His condition became critical on 24th of March. On the morning of March 27, a severe headache further worsened it. He expired the same evening in the house of Haji Ismail Khan, where he had been shifted 10 or 12 days earlier. He was buried the following afternoon in the compound of the Mosque of Aligarh College. He was mourned by a large number of friends and admirers both within and outside South Asia.